Uterine cervical biopsy is a gynecological procedure that women are prescribed if there is a suspicion of the development of a tumor process in the cervical canal.
During the procedure, a small piece of cervical mucosa is sampled, which will then be used for microscopic examination.
Indications and contraindications to the procedure
Usually the need for a biopsy occurs when the gynecologist has serious suspicions of any cervical pathology:
- If the color of the mucosa of the cervical canal has changed;
- When there are erosive lesions on the neck, papillomas and other formations;
- If suspected of endocervicitis, papillomavirus, cervical cancer, cervical dysplasia or leukoplakia.
So, biopsy of the cervical canal is contraindicated:
- In the presence of blood pathologies associated with poor blood flow, since there is a risk of uterine bleeding. The uterine neck has a fairly large vascular network, so any intervention can provoke quite a lot of blood loss, especially in women with poor blood flow;
- Infectious sexually transmitted diseases, such as gonorrhea, syphilis, etc. This prohibition is due to the fact that pathogenic bacteria or fungi penetrate into the mucosal tissue damaged by biopsy and cause serious inflammation;
- Also cervical biopsy is contraindicated in pregnancy and menstruation.
If the above factors are not present, then the woman does not have any obstacles to perform the diagnostic procedure.
Types of biopsy of the cervix
Neck biopsy is very important diagnostic value, because timely delivery helps to show pathologies such as dysplasia, polyposis or uterine cervical cancer.
The procedure is usually prescribed for 5-6 days after menstruation. Such a study can be conducted in several ways.
A similar biopsy is also called point and colposcopic. The procedure is performed using a colposcope, which is a special tweezers, which are used to take the biomaterial from the uterine neck.
The damaged surface heals about 5-6 days after the procedure. Bioptate is taken from a certain, pre-planned area of the cervical canal. Usually a similar biopsy procedure is performed with a special biopsy needle.
A similar method of biopsy of cervical structures is indicated for women who do not have a history of labor. Usually, a Surgitron device is used to conduct a radio wave cervical biopsy.
A similar technique for biopsy research is distinguished by the absence of traditional effects such as bleeding. Such a study is also called radio-knife and excisional biopsy of the cervix.
Knife procedure for obtaining a biopsy for today is not particularly common, as, for example, loop or radio wave. This procedure is not suitable for nulliparous women.
When carrying out a knife biopsy, the patients must be anesthetized, and after the procedure the woman is under medical supervision for a while.
After a knife biopsy, a seam is applied that does not require removal. After the procedure for several days, as with other procedures, the patients feel some soreness.
The essence of this procedure is that a woman is administered traditional anesthesia, after which a piece of neck tissue is captured by a special loop through which current is passed. This technique is also called electrosurgical biopsy or electroexcision.
The biopsy sampling is performed by a tool - a loop that passes an electric weak-power discharge. This loop exfoliates the desired tissue element for laboratory testing.
When carrying out a circular biopsy, a large area of the cervical tissue is grasped, an anesthesia is required for this procedure, with a slightly greater effect than with a conventional biopsy.
The procedure is more painful, bleeding after it also lasts a little more( about a month).
During the procedure, the surface cervical layer is scraped out, produced by the curette. The resulting sample is sent for cytological diagnosis.
Laser biopsy of the uterine neck involves taking a biopsy sampling by means of a laser knife.
A similar procedure is performed in a hospital setting, because it requires general anesthesia.
This procedure is considered to be less traumatic and uncomplicated.
Some time after the analysis, minor spotting of reddish-brown or pink color may occur. In general, the procedure has no complications, it is characterized by painlessness and is considered financially accessible.
The method of conoptotal biopsy analysis is similar to the colposcopic technique, the only difference is that when the procedure is performed, the instrument is used - with konkoth, which is similar to scissors having sharp edges.
A biopsy study in this way is performed after a colposcopic examination revealed the presence of a large-scale epithelial lesion. The biopsy specimen is taken from several sites.
How to prepare?
A woman should undergo a preliminary comprehensive examination, which is traditionally used in gynecological practice.
Preparing for a cervical biopsy involves the following:
- A smear should be given to a pathogenic flora, a biopsy is performed only with negative results from such a study;
- The best time to get a biopsy is in the first days after menstruation. It is necessary that before the next menstruation healed wound, formed by plucking a piece of cervical mucosa. This usually takes a couple of weeks;
- If it is planned to use anesthesia during the procedure, then a woman can not drink or eat anything during 12 hours, or take medicines;
- Before taking a biopsy, a couple of days of sexual rest, exclusion of tampons and douching should be avoided.
In addition, a woman is necessarily warned about the possible consequences of a biopsy and takes her written consent for manipulation. When all the preparatory subtleties are met, you can proceed to the procedure.
How is a cervical biopsy performed?
A biopsy is performed with local, intravenous anesthesia or without anesthesia. The patient is placed on the gynecological chair, then the mirrors are opened to the cervix and fixed with special forceps.
The biopsy is taken from the site most suspicious for the doctor on the basis of an advanced colposcopic examination. If there are several such sites, the biopsy is taken from each separately.
When taking a biopsy specimen, it is taken into account that its dimensions should be relatively large( about 5 mm).In addition, not only the flat epithelial layer, but also connective tissue cervical structures, should be captured.
After obtaining the sample, the wound is closed with sutures, and a tampon impregnated with a coagulating solution( fibrin, aminocaproic acid, etc.) is inserted into the vagina. If the biopsy specimen from the cervix was carried out by radio wave or diathermopetal method, then it is not necessary to take additional haemostatic measures.
The biopsy is placed in a formaldehyde solution and sent for histology. Biopsized zones are necessarily noted in the relevant documents.
What should not be done after the procedure:
recommendations To avoid possible complications, follow the doctor's instructions, which usually consist of the following restrictions:
- In the next two months, you can not douche;
- Give up sexual intercourse;
- Only water is allowed from the water procedures, the bath is strictly unacceptable;
- Articles weighing more than 3 kg - do not lift;
- Tampons - no, gaskets - yes;
- Drugs affecting blood flowability under categorical prohibition;
- Sauna or sauna - absolutely not allowed.
If, after a biopsy, the patient experiences a pulling sensation in the lower abdomen, blood clots leave the vagina, a frequent change of the pads is necessary, and the discharge has an unpleasant smell, then you need to immediately run to the gynecologist.
If symptoms are accompanied by high fever, you should call an ambulance.
After a biopsy, the patient remains able to work, although she has vaginal discharge, which lasts approximately 3-4 days if the biopsy is taken by radio wave.
If the sample of the cervical tissue was taken by a loop method, the bleeding may last several days( maximum a week).
Sometimes the consequences of the procedure are manifested as elevated temperature. Since cervical biopsy is still a micro-operation associated with a violation of the integrity of tissues, there is a possibility of complications of infectious origin.
If hyperthermia is characterized by values above 37.5 ° C, then it is necessary to consult a doctor to determine the cause of fever.
It is considered normal if, after a cervical biopsy, abdominal pain, lower part of the abdomen, and painful sensations in the deep part of the vagina are observed. This is quite normal phenomenon, this symptomatology will pass by itself, so you do not need to panic.
Dangerous complications after biopsy are such phenomena as:
- Purulent processes;
- Vascular lesions that cause severe bleeding;
- Circular biopsy can cause extensive scarring or provoke the appearance of areas with abnormal, abnormal epithelium, which experts regard as a precancerous condition.
Interpretation of results
Usually the results of the analyzes are prepared for 2 weeks. They can confirm cervical dysplasia, benign tumor processes, polyposis, etc.
It is unlikely to decipher the results of a cervical biopsy independently, because only a qualified specialist can understand this complicated matter.
Today, specialists use several interpretations during decoding, including three dysplastic degrees, carcinoma, classification of changes with papillomavirus, etc.
In our clinics, we usually use classification of background disorders, precancerous conditions and uterine cervical cancer. Based on this classification, the diagnosis is determined.
Even cervical cancer with early detection is amenable to therapy. Therefore, when receiving the results, it is recommended that the doctor be asked to accurately and in detail decrypt them, as well as give appropriate recommendations for treatment.
After the marriage, I thought about the baby, so I decided to undergo a full gynecological examination. Everything was in order, however, pregnancy did not come. After treatment in the LC, a biopsy of the cervix was prescribed. They made a loop method. Pain as such was not. Although there was unpleasant discomfort. A couple of days after the biopsy were spotting, but then everything went away. But after the procedure, the cause of infertility was found out. Useful and painless analysis.
I was assigned a biopsy when I did not get pregnant after two years of marriage. They did it in a classical way, because our regional hospital does not have other possibilities. Girls, contact private hospitals or republican centers, because anything below the status is torture and mockery of a woman. Not only that the procedure was painful, so also the infection was brought. And my sister was in a private hospital, and all without problems, without complications. In general, the procedure is painless and very informative.
How much does the analysis cost?
The average price of cervical biopsy in Moscow medical centers is about 2000-12590 rubles.
The final cost depends on the status of the hospital and the method of diagnosis.
- questions Is it painful to do a cervical biopsy?
Judging by the reviews, biopsy of the cervical canal does not cause painful sensations. Women argue that the pain is not so strong, more fear. If to argue from the physiological point of view, the pain is absent. In the neck there are no nerve endings, so there are no painful sensations. The maximum that a woman can feel is a slight discomfort, which is quite rare.
- How many days are cervical biopsy prepared?
Laboratory diagnostics is carried out for 10-14 days. But do not even try to understand the results yourself. It is better to ask the doctor for a full explanation of the diagnosis.
- What day is the biopsy done?
Cervical biopsies are usually performed 3-5 days after the termination of the menstrual period, i.e. in the first menstrual phase.
- Bleeding after a cervical biopsy, what should I do?
If after a cervical biopsy a bleeding does not occur after 10 days after the procedure, then it is necessary to consult a specialist. In the first days after the procedure, bleeding is considered normal.
- Can a biopsy of the cervix be done with inflammation?
In the presence of inflammatory processes in the low-tidal region, cervical biopsy is categorically contraindicated.
Biopsy in general is a relatively simple and very accessible gynecological diagnostic procedure that allows you to determine the exact diagnosis. With a correct and skilled procedure, there will be no painful sensations, as well as complications. Therefore, there is no need to fear biopsies of the cervix.
Video about cervical biopsy: