Dysbacteriosis in newborns, only appeared in the light, itself can not develop. It is always a secondary disease that occurs as a symptom of some intestinal pathology. Therefore, before most young mothers the question arises, where did the baby, who was just a few days old, had the symptoms of this ailment, the feces changed and colic started. To begin with, we need to understand why dysbacteriosis occurs in children up to a year and how it happens. In any newborn in the very first days of birth, this intestinal dysfunction develops, which is a transitional condition. When pregnancy proceeds normally, the child, being in the mother's womb, is completely sterile. His body is not familiar with microorganisms.
But at the time of birth, when the newborn moves along the birth canal, primary bacteria are colonized not only by the skin but also by the mucous membranes. This contributes to the emergence of infants in the transient dysbiosis. This "occupation" by microorganisms of the body of a newborn baby continues for the first 3-5 days of life. This condition is not dangerous and does not require treatment. It is necessary to observe the medical personnel and mummies in order to protect the crumb from the transition of the transient form of dysbiosis to compensated, which has 3 degrees of development.
If the baby is properly cared for and breastfed, this primary symptomatology will disappear by the end of the 1st week of life, because the harmful bacteria that have settled in his body will be replaced by bifidoflora, which is contained in the maternal colostrumand milk. That's why it should be from the first moments. This is considered very important. But there are situations when it is not possible to apply breastfeeding( a caesarean section or some kind of pathology that appeared during childbirth in the newborn or his mother), then the harmful bacteria begin to develop intensively and thereby aggravate the symptoms of transient dysbiosis and move it to heavier forms.
Symptoms of dysbiosis in infants
The main sign of intestinal dysbiosis in newborns is the deteriorated skin condition and the changed consistency and color of the stool. A newly-born child in the very first days of life has a dark-green stain, thick and viscous. After a few days the feces change, they acquire a light brown color and a mushy consistency. But even for 3 months in their composition can detect impurities of mucus or greens. This is not a deviation from the norm.
The frequency of stools in infants of the first month of life reaches 5-10 times a day, but when the newborn reaches 2 months of age, the frequency of stool is normalized. The number of them becomes no more than 1 time in 2-3 days. Do not forget that children, who are more than 5 months, will defecate more often, because the frequency of the chair is strongly influenced by vegetables and fruits, introduced into the lure, as they have a laxative effect.
But if the baby does not just loose the stool, but develops bowel dysfunction, he will have watery diarrhea. Feces in this case acquire an unpleasant and sharp smell and green color, foam, contain veins of blood or mucus. In this case, you should immediately pass the test for dysbiosis and undergo the necessary treatment if necessary. Common symptoms that can appear in infants with a violation of the functional activity of the intestine, we can name the following:
- Infant with developing dysbiosis becomes capricious and restless;
- The skin is pale;
- There is a disorder of stool( diarrhea), as well as bloating;
- Newborns with this pathology are characterized by frequent regurgitation between feedings;
- Spasms in the intestine, which can be determined by crying the child and bending the legs under oneself.
Also, with the development of dysbacteriosis, infants are disturbed by sleep and body weight decreases due to a decrease in appetite. Why do newborn babies develop a dysbacteriosis of the intestine? Recently, the appearance of symptoms of this disease are observed in infants more often. Pediatricians explain this by the fact that the baby's body is weakened already before birth. This can be facilitated by the following factors:
- A pregnant woman took antimicrobials or antibiotics;
- Pathogenic flora, which contributes to the development of dysbacteriosis, can get into the intestines of the child in the walls of the maternity home;
- Symptoms of pathology can also develop with artificial or mixed feeding.
All these factors are considered dangerous, since they lead to an increased risk of developing the disease, because under their influence the number of pathogenic microorganisms significantly increases, and the beneficial bacteria decreases. Dysbacteriosis in infants can manifest in the form of 3 degrees:
- Compensated( 1 degree).It develops from a transitory one for a number of reasons: getting into the baby's body antibiotics or chemotherapy, active hormone therapy, exhaustion, enzymatic insufficiency. The development of pathology can be seen by reducing the weight of the child due to the fact that he has lost his appetite and a slight swelling of the abdomen. But the crumb does not lose its activity and behaves in the usual way;
- 2 degree of dysbacteriosis of the infants - subcompensated. Symptoms begin to appear brighter, stools are clearly manifested( constipation is replaced by diarrhea), periodic colic begins, food must be made to take, and the feces becomes pronounced green with a sharp and unpleasant odor;
- 3 degree of dysbacteriosis in newborns is rare. Characterize it can be that with it there is chronic diarrhea, which has a hydrogen sulfide or putrefactive smell, the appetite is completely absent, the tummy of babies suffering from this pathology, significantly inflated, and the increase in body weight is not perfect. The skin of a baby at this degree of dysbacteriosis acquires considerable pallor, and the baby itself is very weak.
Features of the development of dysbiosis up to the year
A very large number of young parents who have faced intestinal dysbiosis in infants are interested in how the disease develops and develops, what can be done to alleviate the condition of their child, and what therapeutic and preventive measures are most effective. The questions asked by them are quite serious and simple, in a nutshell, they are not answered. Therefore, it is worth considering in detail this period of life of the baby, who was not lucky enough to face such an unpleasant pathology as dysbiosis.
The development of pathology in one-, two- and three-month-old babies can contribute to overfeeding. Their digestive organs are not yet able to digest excess food. This leads to the fact that the tummies swell, and there is abundant regurgitation. Also, overeating leads the child from 1 to 3 months of life to pain. Dysbiosis in a month's children is also possible due to the late introduction of complementary foods. Introduce in the ration of kids fruit or vegetable purée before 5 or 6 months. Not recommended. With the artificial feeding of life, the prerequisite for the development of pathology will be the transition from one mixture to another.
In infants from 4 to 5 months, dysbacteriosis in breastfeeding can develop for 2 reasons:
- The presence of some diseases that are not detected by doctors in time;
- Breaking Mom's Power Rules.
In the case when a newborn baby is on artificial feeding, the problem of developing a dysbacteriosis may turn out to be the same as for two- or three-month-old crumbs - usual overfeed or frequent change of mixtures.
The occurrence of dysbacteriosis in infants 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 months and up to a year mostly occurs due to incorrectly introduced complementary foods. Most of all it concerns 6 monthly crumbs. In fact at this time the ration of nutrition of the baby is expanding. In addition to breast milk and mixtures, babies begin to receive vegetable and fruit purees in 6 months. They themselves have a laxative effect and are capable of giving symptoms similar in their manifestations to dysbiosis. Therefore, parents of 6 and 7 month old children should be as careful as possible to monitor all intestinal manifestations of crumbs.
Dysbacteriosis in one-year-old babies
If this pathology in babies up to a year can develop from a transient form mostly due to eating disorders, or the absence of breastfeeding, what leads to its occurrence in one-year-old children and what are the distinctive features it has at this age? If the primary dysbacteriosis of infants is easy enough to diagnose and treat, since it does not appear to have any serious illnesses for the most part, then a growing child may have a serious illness or exposure to certain pathogenic factors to this dysfunction of the digestive organs.
To establish the beginning of the development of pathology in infants both before and after the year is quite difficult, because the digestive tract due to immaturity is characterized by instability in work. This gives symptoms of stool disorders that occurs in the same way as in infants, for no apparent reason, or as a reaction to a new product, temperature, teeth. Knowing such prerequisites, many parents do not initially worry, but in the case of long-term preservation of these manifestations, indicating the possible development of dysbiosis, mothers of one-year-olds should remember the history of the baby in the presence of infants( a disease for which antibiotics, poisoning).As a cause of dysbiosis is also suspected:
- Frequent viral infections;
- Glistular invasion;
- Rotavirus causing diarrhea and dehydration;
- Such microorganisms, trapped in the intestinal tract, like Klebsiella and Salmonella.
In addition to the development of dysbacteriosis and in newborns, babies, and one-year-old children lead to enzymatic deficiency, causing imbalance of the flora, and with it a digestive process disorder, and congenital dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract. The prerequisite for the speedy passage of the diagnosis for detecting the development of this pathology in growing up baby will be such signs and complaints of the child as:
- Frequent disturbances of the stool and change in its character;
- Dyspeptic phenomena;
- Increasing symptoms of dehydration.
Often asked, what is dangerous dysbiosis in infants? With long-term pathology without appropriate treatment, by the age of one year iron deficiency anemia( impaired absorption of nutrients) and obvious signs of hypovitaminosis, may develop rickets.
The main danger of dysbacteriosis in newborns and infants is the violations occurring in the functioning of the intestines, which leads to the development of gastritis and other pathologies of the digestive tract. Any of them is fraught with serious consequences for babies. The danger of any of these diseases for newborns is that in this pathology the beneficial bacteria are replaced by pathogenic ones, destructive shocks are inflicted on health and irreparable harm is caused.
Prevention of dysbacteriosis in newborns
Any disease is always easier to prevent than treat. This also applies to intestinal pathologies that develop in infants up to a year. All preventive measures to prevent the development of dysbacteriosis in infants should start from the moment of pregnancy planning and they consist in that the future mother began to closely monitor the state of the microflora of the genital organs.
After the child was born, the main preventive measure will be breastfeeding. The longer the period it will be present, the greater the chance of breaking the intestinal microflora. As the child grows up, it is necessary to include foods containing bifidobacteria in the diet as complementary foods. Newborns, who are prone to frequent illnesses, it is useful to additionally give probiotics. Nursing mother, however, should carefully monitor their diet and exclude all "harmfulness" from it. Categorically not recommended coffee, chocolate, smoked. All that is trapped in the baby with milk, will contribute to irritation of mucous membranes of its digestive organs. It is also necessary to eat daily dairy products.