Dwarf tseleen is a parasite belonging to the category of tapeworms and causing the development of hymenolepiasis.
The habitat of the parasite is the small intestine, in which, with the prolonged development of the dwarf chain, many digestive disorders occur. A similar parasite, in comparison with other helminths, has a special tenacity and infectiousness.
Distribution and localization of
A similar parasite is most common in temperate climates, rather than in the tropics, although it is found all over the world. Children are more likely to become infected than adults.
The parasite prefers to settle in the small intestine, disrupting the digestive processes of patients and destroying the intestinal walls.
Photo of the dwarf chain
Adult worms can cause perforation of the mucous membrane of the intestinal layer, lead to the death of villi and the development of severe anemia.
The structure of the parasite
The dwarf species in the structure is almost the same as the structure of the other tape.
- The adult specimen reaches a length of 4-5 cm and its width is 0.1 cm.
- The worm's body consists of a set of proglottids, which, as they mature, come off and stand out together with the feces.
- On the head of the parasite, there are 4 suckers and a retractable proboscis with a number of hooks, with which it engages the mucous tissues of the intestine.
- In the head is also located and the main nerve center of the parasite, from which the nerve strands disagree along the body.
- The head is attached to the body by the neck, which is actually the point of growth.
- During the maturation, the segments are moved away from the cervix, and younger proglottids develop in their place.
- Each segment feeds on its own, and also has an individual, intensely functioning reproductive system, so by the time of reaching the proglottid end of the tail, it turns into a bag tightly packed with eggs. When maturation is completed, the segment is disconnected.
Life cycle of development of the dwarf chain
Usually the life cycle of the worm takes about 30-45 days and all this time the parasite is in the human body. The body gets eggs with dirty hands, unwashed products, and they can easily carry flies on their paws.
Outside of the human body, eggs live not for long, not more than 10 days, but within a given period they manage to penetrate into the human body and start development.
When a person is infected, the swallowed eggs of the parasite enter the intestinal structures, where they get rid of the shell and hook onto the walls. The worm grows rapidly and soon becomes an adult, which parasitizes in the lower parts of the small intestine.
The larvae are not afraid of the temperature of the human body, even if the patient has a fever, they continue to safely parasitize. On average, the worm parasitizes in the human intestine for 1-1.5 months, but due to the ability to self-fertilize and self-infection, dwarf chains can live in the host organism for many years.
Pathways of infection
There are two ways to infect with hymenolepidosis: fecal-oral or auto-invasive.
In the first case, eggs of the parasite penetrate into the body with unwashed vegetables or fruits, with raw water, with dirty hands, and also with occasional ingestion of infected insects, for example, flour soup.
This is a small beetle that is planted where grain is stored. It can get into the baked goods with flour, when eating it, the person becomes infected, because even high baking temperatures can not kill the larva that parasitizes inside the beetle. Such cases of infection are extremely rare, infection often occurs when swallowing eggs.
If the adult specimen of the parasite has settled in the upper intestinal parts, then in such a situation the eggs of the dwarf chain may not go out with feces, then the patient experiences endless self-infection. This route of infection is of an autoinvasive nature.
Susceptibility to the parasite is quite high, although mostly children 4-14 years old are ill.
Foci of infection are often registered in school or pre-school institutions, orphanages or boarding schools, in individual families. Most are sick townspeople, rather than residents of rural areas. Immunity after infection is not, therefore re-infection is likely.
Pathogenic effect of
Dwarf tsepene has a very negative effect on the host's body:
- Sensitization, in which the body acquires an allergic mood and develops allergic and toxic reactions due to exposure to substances released during the life of the worm;
- Mechanical injuries of intestinal walls, death of villi on the intestinal mucosa under the influence of parasitism and contact with hooks located on the head;
- Avitaminosis with acute deficiency of ascorbic acid, vitamins PP and B2;
- Dysbacteriosis of the intestine;
- Blood loss on the background of intestinal trauma, leading to severe iron deficiency anemia.
Signs and symptoms of the disease
Dwarf tamer in the process of parasitism provokes perforation of intestinal walls, and the products of its parasitic activity provoke toxic-allergic reactions. Often against the background of hymenolepiasis, patients have dysbacteriosis and avitaminosis, anemia, etc.
Also, dwarf tsepne is manifested by such symptoms:
- Brightly expressed abdominal pains;
- Subfebrile hyperthermia;
- Weakness and sleep disorders;
- Dyspepsia symptoms such as nausea and vomiting syndrome, salivation and swelling, belching, problems with stool;
- Allergic rashes, vasomotor rhinitis or urticaria;
- Astheno-neurotic manifestations like memory disorders or irritability;
- Causing weight loss, lack of appetite, etc.
Often the diagnosis of helminth infections with a dwarf chain is difficult due to the absence of any pathological symptoms.
For the detection of the disease, the patient undergoes coproovascular diagnosis, which consists in a laboratory study of the patient's stool to detect parasitic eggs in them. Such a study should be done three times with a 2-week gap between the analyzes.
If necessary, an enzyme immunoassay is performed to detect helminthic antibodies in it. In particularly complex clinical cases, it is shown that diagnostic procedures are performed, such as ultrasound or computer tomography, of abdominal and intestinal structures.
Video shows a dwarf chain in endoscopy:
Treatment of a disease in humans
Therapeutic measures for lesions with a dwarf chain are prescribed only by a specialist, and the treatment process must also be under the supervision of qualified doctors. The course of medications taken is prescribed individually.
The goal of treatment is not only the destruction and removal of parasitic organisms, but also a supporting therapeutic effect.
It is necessary to think carefully the treatment to exclude the possibility of complications and relapse of infection, and also help the body to restore the structure affected by the parasite activity.
As a preparation for treatment, the doctor appoints a dietary diet and hepatoprotective therapy to the patient, shows adsorbent intake, regulation of the stool, and elimination of background pathologies.
Specialists are very ambivalent about the use of folk remedies in therapy. In addition, dwarf tseleen is difficult to remove because it can freely reproduce without leaving the host organism.
With regard to folk treatment, it involves the use of herbal infusions from a variety of fees. Usually, such gatherings are prepared from a mixture of herbs like peppermint and bitter wormwood, chamomile and tansy, sage and calendula, birch leaves, burdock, oak bark, etc.
One of the most famous ways of folk worm treatment is the use of pumpkin seeds, which must be eaten daily.
Also known for its antihelminthic properties is garlic, which is even recommended for eating to prevent parasitic infections. But the use of folk remedies is still recommended as an additional therapeutic measure, and not as a basic treatment.
Antiparasitic treatment of invasion with a dwarf chain is carried out with the medicament Fenasal. The drug takes 4 days, then a week break, after which again 4 days of admission. This is a general scheme that can be adjusted by the doctor depending on the specific clinical situation.
Instead of Fenasal, a doctor may prescribe a single dose of Praziquantel, Niclosamide or Albendazole, Baltricide, etc.
Prophylaxis and prognosis of
Prevention of dwarf chain is extremely important and avoids the mass of problems associated with parasitizing helminthic invasions.
The main preventive measure is hand washing. Before every diet and on returning home it is extremely important to wash your hands with soap and water. In food you can eat only thoroughly washed and scalded with boiled water or fruit.
Eggs of the dwarf parasite can be destroyed only by steep boiling water. The dishes should be stored in closed cupboards, where flies can not penetrate. Vegetables or fruit crops, berries can be poured hot water( 70 ° C) for about a quarter of an hour or rinse well and clean for an hour in a cold room with a negative temperature.
The timely detection and treatment of patients with hymenolopidosis is also of major preventive importance. When traveling abroad, the tourist should strictly observe the hygiene of the hands and not eat dubious purity products.
The prognosis for a dwarf chain is serious enough because of the high probability of self-infection.
In general, the pathology is easily amenable to therapy, with repeated infection, the course of treatment is repeated. Properly conducted treatment leads to complete disposal of parasites.