Metabolic Nephropathy: Causes, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Functionality of all organs and systems of our body largely depends on the processes of material exchange, i.e., biochemical processes that ensure the full growth and development of cellular structures. Therefore, real exchange failures cause a lot of disturbances in organic activity, contributing to the development of a variety of pathologies, such as obesity and gout, diabetes, musculoskeletal and kidney diseases. Because of violations of metabolic functions, metabolic nephropathy also develops.

Metabolic nephropathy of the kidneys

Metabolic nephropathy is the renal damage caused by the violation of metabolic processes( ICD code N14.2).Pathology can have a primary or secondary etiology. Primary nephropathies are hereditary and are characterized by rapid development and progression, so that soon after the onset of the pathological process, the patient develops urolithiasis or kidney failure.

Secondary nephropathies are more common and arise due to existing abnormalities in kidney activity, u

ncontrolled intake of medications, and supersaturation of the body with various substances. The prevalent number of metabolic nephropathies occurs as a result of failures in the processes of calcium metabolism, excess intake of oxalates and calcium phosphates, as well as oxalic acid.

Reasons for

Causes of metabolic nephropathy As noted above, metabolic nephropathy is a fundamental factor in the development of metabolic disorders.

Also causes the formation of pathology and may be such reasons:

  1. Genitourinary infection in the urethra;
  2. Oncological lesions;
  3. The presence of gastrointestinal parasitic lesions like lamblia or worms;
  4. Uncontrolled urination, urodesis, urethral constriction and other urethral discharge disorders;
  5. Endocrine lesions of the inorganic regulatory system;
  6. Failures in the exchange of oxalic acid, calcium and other substances that are due to genetic predisposition;
  7. Consequences of ionizing therapy;
  8. Inadequate and uncontrolled use of medication.

Forms of genetically conditioned metabolic nephropathy are rare, which can not be said about the acquired form of pathology, which is diagnosed more often, develops slowly and causes the formation of stones in the kidney structures of the kidney.


The disease is more often detected in children, often accompanied by pathological disorders such as vegetovascular dystonia and obesity, a tendency to allergic manifestations and hypotension. Quite often, nephropathy of a similar form develops in children born from pregnancy, accompanied by fetal hypoxia and late toxicosis.

Signs and symptoms

Metabolic nephropathy is characterized by multiple symptoms.

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The most common clinical manifestations of the pathology are:

  • Brightly pronounced substance exchange disorders;
  • Various kinds of inflammatory processes like pyelonephritis or nephritis;
  • Cystitis or inflammation of the bladder;
  • Rapid urination;
  • Excessive content of erythrocytic and leukocyte cells in the urine;
  • Detection in urine of urates, phosphates and oxalates;
  • Urolithiasis;
  • Chronic fatigue;
  • Discomfort and pain in the abdomen.

Quite often, metabolic nephropathy is mistaken for urataria( when urination generates a large amount of urates) or oxaluria( when a large number of oxalates are present in the urine).

Diagnosis of

Diagnosis of metabolic nephropathy If a patient experiences symptoms of metabolic nephropathy, then urgent diagnosis should be performed. Usually it is possible to determine the diagnosis after ultrasound diagnosis of the kidneys and biochemical examination of urine. Laboratory tests of urine help to determine the elevated content of certain salts, and ultrasound helps confirm the presence of nephropathy. This diagnostic technique allows to determine the presence of seals in the kidney structures, sand and stones, inflammatory foci, etc.

Treatment of

Traditional therapy for metabolic nephropathy is as follows:

  1. Increase the amount of water consumed;
  2. Change the way of life;
  3. Medication;
  4. Dietotherapy.

The primary goal of the therapeutic process is to identify the etiological factor of pathology. Then the doctor selects the optimal medications that correspond to individual organic characteristics. Therapy of metabolic nephropathy suggests an increase in the drinking regime, because the consumed liquid reduces the concentration of substances entering the body, dissolving them. In addition, the consumption of large amounts of water leads to increased urination, which positively affects the health and prevents the development of the urinary cells. Equally important in the therapeutic process and diet therapy. The functionality of the body is significantly improved due to a balanced approach to diet.

Metabolic nephropathy requires the rejection of products such as chocolate and citrus, spicy and fatty foods, cocoa and other products.

Treatment of metabolic nephropathy in both adults and children in the pediatric age should begin already at the early stages of the pathological process. The earlier to take therapeutic measures, the sooner the recovery will come. Also, the success of treatment depends on the accuracy of the diagnosis. But even after recovery, the patient should periodically undergo a medical examination in order to detect a beginning relapse in time.

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