The appearance of cylinders in the urine is called cylilluria. They represent a kind of sediment in the fluid when urinating, having a cylindrical shape.
Different types of cylinders make it possible to recognize diseases of the lower zone of the genito-urinary tract( urethritis, etc.), as well as developing violations of the functional capacity of the kidneys.
Discovered cylinders when passing urine analysis, which include erythrocytes, indicate an acute diffuse glomerulonephritis. If bacterial cylinders were detected in urine, this indicates the presence of bacterial pyelonephritis. In addition, the cylinders carry only those harmful microorganisms, which triggered the appearance of the disease.
Cylinders in urine - what does this mean?
Depending on what pathological processes occur in the urinary system of a person, there are also different pathological cylinders in the urine. Therefore, the laboratory assistant and specifies which cylinders in the general analysis of urine are found, namely:
- Hyaline cylinders - can stand out against the background of complete human health, with microscopy of urinary sediment in the norm should be no more than 1-2 cylinders per field of view.
- Grainy cylinders - represent a protein cast of tubules with an admixture of cells of the renal epithelium.
- Wax-shaped cylinders - are formations from a homogeneous translucent mass.
- Erythrocyte cylinders indicate the renal origin of hematuria( with acute glomerulonephritis, chronic glomerulonephritis, kidney cancer, fornicinal bleeding, etc.).
- Epithelial cylinders in the absence of kidney pathology in the urine are not detected. The appearance of epithelial cylinders indicates severe degenerative changes in the tubular apparatus of the kidneys. They occur with nephrosis and severe lesions( sulemoma, etc.).
- pseudocylinders are formed from slime, resemble hyaline cylinders. Can form from the sediment of uric acid salts: they are red, resembling pigmented blood cylinders.
What does this mean? The appearance of cylinders of any type in the urine - an alarm signal, indicating that the functional units of the kidneys - nephrons - are under attack.
Cylinders hyaline in urine
Formed from denatured protein in renal tubules under the influence of acid urine reaction. Extremely gentle, pale, transparent formations, under bright illumination, are barely noticeable, for better diagnosis the sediment can be tinted with methylene blue, gentianiviolet, eosin, iodine tincture. On their surface can be a light granularity due to the deposition of amorphous salts or cellular detritus, which can make it difficult to differentiate from granular cylinders.
Normally, the number of hyaline cylinders does not exceed 1-2 in the preparation, they appear with physical activity, increased body temperature, constant presence of protein in the urine, nephrotic syndrome, measles, rubella, chickenpox, influenza, parainfluenza, adenovirus infection, polio, HIV / AIDS of other infectious diseases( pertussis, scarlet fever, diphtheria, meningococcal infection, tuberculosis) accompanied by an increase in body temperature.
Grainy cylinders in the urine
This is a cast of the kidney canal consisting of a protein curdled in acid urine to the surface of which the dystrophically altered tubular epithelial cells adhered. As a result, C. acquire a granular appearance, and their color is darker than hyaline C.
Grainy cylinders in the urine appear against a background of diseases accompanied by damage to the renal tubules and proteinuria( protein in the urine): chronic glomerulonephritis, amyloidosis of the kidneys, diabetic nephropathy, pyelonephritis, viral diseases accompanied by fever.
Wax-shaped cylinders in urine
Wax cylinders consist of a homogeneous, structureless material, similar to wax, yellowish in color;are formed in the distal sections of the tubules due to dystrophy and atrophy( necrobiosis) of the tubular epithelium of these sections, which is usually observed in severe acute kidney damage( for example, in subacute malignant glomerulonephritis) or in the late stage of renal diseases and chronic renal failure. Therefore, their detection in the urine is regarded as a prognostically unfavorable symptom.
Especially characteristic for pyelonephritis, to a lesser extent for lupus nephritis and some other diseases.
Have a renal origin and appear with necrosis of renal tubules, poisoning with heavy metals. The appearance of these cylinders is the indicator of allograft rejection( a few days after the operation).
Present in urine with acute progressive glomerulonephritis and some other kidney diseases( kidney infarction, renal vein thrombosis), as well as in polyarthritis, severe hypertension.
Cylindrical formations, consisting of mucus. Single cylindroids can sometimes occur in the urine of a healthy person. A significant number of them can be found during inflammatory processes in the urinary tract.