Onychomycosis: treatment, causes, diagnostics, drugs

Nails often suffer from various fungal infections. One of the most common nail diseases is onychomycosis. Unfortunately, 10-20% of people around the globe are familiar with this disease.

Features of the disease

Onychomycosis is one of a variety of fungal nail diseases. Fungus, which acts as a causative agent of infection, causes a violation of the protective function of the nails. In addition, this disease has a very dangerous toxic effect on the human nervous system.

Fungus destroys the nail tissue after it penetrates into its deep layers. The destruction of the nail cells lasts until they disintegrate into the smallest substances that the fungus will easily digest. The products of the life of the fungus penetrate into the blood through the lymph, thus poisoning the body of the sick person.

Infection with fungal infection is facilitated by weakening of the immune system. Most often it affects the nails of elderly people. Fungus affects the tissues of the nails, as well as the skin. These microscopic organisms have very high viability, they do not have much difficulty in quickly adapting to various conditions, so it is very difficult to cure the disease.

Onychomycosis of nails( photo)

Classification of

In onychomycosis it is customary to distinguish 3 types:

  1. Atrophic .It is characterized by a change in the usual color of the nail to brownish-gray. Over time, the affected nail atrophy, there is his rejection from the bed.
  2. Hypertrophic .This species is characterized by the growth of subcutaneous hyperkeratosis. It becomes the cause of deformation, partial destruction of nails, provokes pain during movement. Treatment of this type of disease is difficult due to the above reasons.
  3. Normotrophic .The shape and appearance of the nail is preserved as well as its natural shine. This kind of fungus is characterized by a discolouration of the nail plate, on which spots and bands appear in the lateral areas.

On the features of onychomycosis of nails will tell this video:

Causes of

The disease develops due to penetration of the nail plate of fungi-dermatophytes. Fungi penetrate deep into the tissues only if the nail plate is injured. Nail damage occurs in such cases:

  1. Wearing tight, uncomfortable shoes. This reason is considered the most common.
  2. Sports, domestic injuries. They occupy the second place in frequency.
  3. Pedicure. The nail plate is injured in the process of removing the cuticle, excessive cutting of the nail.

After penetration of the fungus into the nail plate begins its active growth. This process affects the skin under the fingernail, which greatly complicates the therapy.

Where can I "pick up" the fungus? This non-selective parasite awaits you almost everywhere:

  • on the shower floor;
  • in the pool( on the tile);
  • on carpets;
  • on other people's underwear;
  • on the beach;
  • on accessories used for manicure;
  • on slippers for guests.

People with immune immunity, the presence of metabolic diseases( hypothyroidism, HIV, diabetes mellitus) are most vulnerable to fungal infection. It is also very likely to infect people who have been treated for a long time with such drugs:

  • corticosteroids;
  • antibacterial agents;
  • immunosuppressive agents.

The fungus prefers a moist environment, so it is easier for it to penetrate into the tissues of the nail plate. The risk of getting infected increases with the softening of the nail, the skin with hot water.

Very often, onychomycosis develops within the same family. Dropped scales of skin can be on any surface( carpets, slippers, washcloth, floors).The fungus spreads very quickly. Infection of the nails on the hands occurs when combing the affected areas.

Symptoms of Onychomycosis

Each of the three types of disease has its own individual symptoms, which also depend on the severity of the disease. The main symptoms that are peculiar to each of the three types of onychomycosis are:

  1. The presence of an inflammatory process in the area of ​​the peri-oral fenula.
  2. The presence of dystrophic changes in the nail plate.
  3. Education inside the nail of white, yellow spots, streaks.
  4. Atrophy of the nail with its separation from the bed.

Each of the species has its own individual symptoms:

  • Normotrophic is characterized by a change in the color of the nail( white, yellowish), the formation of spots, streaks. Normal thickness, gloss of the nail is preserved.
  • Hypertrophic type of disease characterized by discoloration, loss of brilliance, thickening, deformation of the nail plate, its destruction, which is noticeable from the sides of the nail. When walking, there are pains.
  • Onycholytic type of disease is characterized by a change in color to brownish-gray, tarnishing of the nail, its thinning, rejection from the bed. The exposed area after the nail's rejection is covered with a loose layering.

On how onychomycosis looks, this video will tell:

Diagnostics

To accurately establish the diagnosis, you need to contact a dermatologist. He will assign the following types of diagnostic studies to the patient:

  1. External examination.
  2. Study of scraping( microscopic).
  3. Bacteriological seeding.

To produce an accurate diagnosis, a differentiated diagnosis will be required to exclude diseases such as red lichen planus, psoriasis, eczema.

Treatment of

Very often, therapies begin with the use of local antifungal agents( creams, ointments).These medicines contain antimycotics that affect the infection caused by fungi.

One local antifungal therapy will be ineffective. It should be done after removing the nail sites affected by the infection. The early stage of onychomycosis can be treated with topical antifungal agents. But to combat the protracted, spread on all nails fungal infection, will require systemic treatment.

Therapeutic

  • After examination, the doctor usually recommends taking antimycotics. It is also necessary to use externally medicinal products that promote the improvement of blood circulation, accelerated growth of nail plates.
  • In modern medicine, laser radiation is often used to treat onychomycosis of the nails on the hands of
    and legs. According to the conducted studies, this method is painless, highly effective.

About drugs for the treatment of onychomycosis of the nails on the legs and hands with good reviews, inexpensive, but effective, we will tell below.

Medication

For the treatment of nail brushes it will take 4 - 6 months. And the treatment of the nails stops for 9-18 months. Among the most common medicines used to control the fungus, we note:

  • "ketoconazole".
  • «Fluconazole».
  • Griseofulvin.
  • "Terbinafine".
  • "Itraconazole".

The course of treatment, drug, dosage is selected by a specialist. In doing so, he takes into account such nuances as the localization of fungal infection, its spread, the degree of damage, the individual tolerability of medicines by the patient.

Surgical

If there are dead areas on the nail plate, they will need to be removed. It can be carried out in such ways:

  • cutting;
  • cutting with pliers.

It is possible to remove the completely dead plate in two ways:

  • by surgical method;
  • using keratolytic drugs.

Pro treatment of onychomycosis, nail fungus, at home read below.

Folk Methods

To achieve complete cure of the disease in people's ways is very difficult. If desired, they can be combined with drug therapy. The following ways of fighting infection are known:

  • Treatment with iodine( 5%).
  • Application of propolis for accelerated falling off of the affected nail, acceleration of growth of a new, healthy nail plate.
  • Rubbing nail with garlic.
  • Compress from a tea mushroom. Apply it at night.

Prevention of the disease

  • One of the highly effective preventive methods is sanitary and educational work.
  • When injuring the foot, the damage must be treated very carefully.
  • It is also recommended to use modern means to combat excessive sweating of the feet, dry skin.

To prevent infection, the following instructions should be observed:

  1. You should visit saunas, swimming pools, and baths in rubber shoes.
  2. After any water procedures, the feet should be wiped very carefully.
  3. Wear comfortable shoes.
  4. You need to change socks every day.
  5. Do not wear other shoes.

If you notice any changes in the appearance of the nail plate, you should contact a specialist to establish an accurate diagnosis.

Complications of

  • If the tissues are squeezed by shoes, the disease may become worse. The patient faces the appearance of a distal subungual onychomycosis.
  • Without on-time treatment, onychomycosis leads to exhaustion of the organism of the patient, causes disturbances in the digestive system, can cause a strong allergic reaction.
  • The disease causes cosmetic problems, which are very unpleasant, especially on the hands.

Forecast

Treatment of fungal infection in the early stages can be performed with antifungal drugs for topical use, antimycotics. With the death of most of the nail plate, surgical treatment is recommended. Removal of the nail affected by the fungus will significantly shorten the duration of antimycotics, accelerate the recovery of the patient.

About possible complications and prognosis with onychomycosis will tell this video:

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