Persistent headache, which is not removed by drugs, which is usually helpful in such cases, may be a signal about the presence of tumor formation in the brain. Whether benign pathology or not, its presence creates a serious threat to the life of the patient.
There is no space in the brain where the contents can move, so that the tumor does not create discomfort. From the moment of appearance, it will press on adjacent tissues, and provoke the possibility of their dysfunction.
Indications and contraindications
The appearance of a tumor in the brain has one treatment option, which can lead to a positive result - this is its removal.
Drug therapy can only provide temporary relief of the condition. Unfortunately, there are cases when the removal of education is impossible.
- location of pathology in the vital center of the brain,
- if the elderly patient has a large size formation,
- multiple brain area lesions by the tumor process,
- localization of pathological formation in a place that is not accessible for excision.
- The patient should refrain from drinking alcohol and cigarettes for a fortnight before manipulation and as much after it.
- If the patient used non-steroid drugs, the operation is stopped before the operation.
- Upon the appointment of a doctor, studies are carried out, such as:
- blood test
- and others.
- The patient is recommended to take drugs that dilute blood.
- The issue of the patient's allergy to medicines is under consideration.
- The operation is carried out in the morning. On the eve of midnight, the patient stops eating food and liquids.
General recommendations for the preparation of a patient for the removal of a tumor:
- If a patient suffers from epilepsy, then he is prescribed anticonvulsant therapy.
- It is recommended to pass an anti-edematous course before the operation.
Types of operations to remove the brain tumor
Specialists are armed with such types of surgical intervention:
- stereotaxic method,
- removal of some cranial bones,
- endoscopic trepanation.
This type of operation is traditional.
To remove pathology in the skull, make a hole of the required size to make direct access to the instruments.
Craniotomy provides for the duration of the procedure the removal of a fragment of the skull bone with the periosteum.
After the task is completed, a bone flap is returned to the hole, which is fixed to the skull with screws and titanium plates.
The task of the surgeon to remove the pathological tissue as much as possible and minimally injure the healthy parts of the brain that are adjacent to the tumor. Sometimes the prevalence or location of education does not allow this, then excise that part of the tumor that can be removed without causing harm. And for the rest of the pathology, other methods are used, for example, irradiation.
The surgeon can use a scalpel to remove pathology, which is a traditional tool. It has drawbacks - in excising pathology, neighboring tissues may suffer, to some extent. Currently, the scalpel has many alternative technologies.
The modern technological equipment allows to carry out removal of a tumor, not traumatizing healthy tissues.
- The laser beam acts like a scalpel blade. It has such advantages:
- There is no proliferation of tumor cells in healthy tissues, which happens with craniotomy.
- Capillary bleeding is excluded, because when the tissue is cut by a laser, it coagulates simultaneously.
- Laser is a tool that by its nature is sterile, therefore, accidental infection can not happen.
- Ultrasonic aspirators are also used to destroy tumor cells. After the manipulation, the suction of the cut off tissues is performed.
- For the removal of tumors at the discretion of specialists( and in case of availability in a medical institution) cryo devices are used. Cryosurgical destruction affects the tumor with a high cold, which kills pathological cells.
Used for the removal of formations in the brain area, navigation technology controlled by a computer. Such operations ensure the highest accuracy of execution.
The procedure involves removing the tumor with a tool that enters the brain area through a small hole in the skull.
The endoscope is a device capable of transmitting an image to a monitor to monitor the actions of the surgeon. Different attachments make it possible to perform the removal of pathology.
The destroyed tissue is removed to the surface using:
- ultrasonic suction unit,
- microscopic pump,
- with electric tweezers.
With endoscopic surgery, as with trepanation, microsurgery is possible. This type of surgery is particularly effective for formations that are localized in the ventricles of the brain( cavities with fluid).
Operation using a gamma knife is performed without physical implantation in the patient's skull. A special helmet is put on the head.
Positive aspects of the method:
- is not an invasive method,
- does not apply anesthesia,
- eliminates complications after surgery that are possible during surgery.
The disadvantages can be attributed only to the fact that this method can destroy the formation of a small size( maximum 3.5 cm).
The removal of a brain tumor with the help of a cyber knife has in its essence a similar technology with the action of a gamma knife. Both these methods apply a directed effect on the formation of radiation beams.
A special head mounted on the equipment emits radiation to the tumor. After a certain time, it changes the angle of impact several times and at the same time the equipment itself keeps the coordinates of the tumor in check.
The operation has the advantages: the patient's
- during the procedure is not restricted to immobility,
- does not need to be anesthetized, the procedure does not cause pain;
- after surgery there are no scars or other traces.
Complete removal of fragments of the skull bones
The operation is a kind of trepanation. This is a complex variant of craniotomy, which is performed in the area of the base of the skull.
During the procedure, remove part of the skull, which closes the brain area from below.
This operation is carried out after the study of the opinion of surgeons of different specializations:
- of the otological direction,
- plastic surgeon,
- specialist in the operation of the head and neck.
The brain - the perfect structure and the appearance of the tumor introduces destruction into its functioning. The operation also carries certain risks, especially for types of implantation in the brain by traditional methods.
- the operated site loses its functions, the
- pathology is not completely removed and in due course a repeated operation will be required,
- serious postoperative complications,
- cancer cells entered the other parts of the brain as a result of implantation,
- lethal outcome.
Surgical removal of a brain tumor in some cases can cause complications. Possible appearance:
- epileptic seizures,
- defective brain work in some areas of life,
- vision impairment and other functions.
This is especially true for operations performed using the trepanation method. It will take a long recovery period, so that the broken connections of nerve fibers and blood vessels will work properly.
Possible postoperative consequences:
- disorder in the work of digestion and urination,
- infection of the operation site,
- disruption in the vestibular apparatus,
- speech and memory disorder.
Rehabilitation after excision of the brain tumor
After surgery, some brain functions may be performed in part. In this case, a rehabilitation period will be required to restore the brain. It can include training and training.
After trepanation, the first activities will be actions aimed at preventing bleeding and swelling of the brain tissue.
This method is used in addition to surgical intervention. Therapy is done on the eve of surgery to block the progression of the tumor.
After surgery, specialists can also use radiation therapy to destroy pathological cells that did not fall under the removal.
How many patients live
The success of surgical removal of pathology in the brain will depend on many components:
- what prevalence in the area of the brain of the tumor process,
- , is there any part of the tumor, its metastases in the brain;
- it is important what kind of education: benign or not;
- whether important brain centers are affected during the operation,
- is there the possibility of implementing the process by modern more secure methods.
- does the patient have the correct internal mood.
Surgical removal of the tumor in the brain area has a cost of between 15,000 and 25,000 dollars. The price in a particular case takes into account the size of education, the method and technology used during the procedure.