Acne: causes, symptoms, diagnosis, prevention

Some people have this problem on the dermis, like acne. How does this pathology manifest itself? It has the form of acne, black spots. If it is found, specialists will need help.

Features of the lesion

Acne is considered the most common lesion of the dermis, which is inflammatory. The disease occurs when the bactericidal function decreases, the active action of pathogenic microflora.

The main task of the sebaceous glands is hydration, softening of the dermis. But, when the influence of certain factors( unfavorable) is observed, an increased secret production occurs. In this case, a strong stretching of the sebaceous sac takes place, a tightening of the secretion. To the secret cells of the epidermis( keratinous), polluting particles are added.

The skin is covered with comedones. They are usually called acne. There is also a change in the condition of the dermis, it becomes visually painful, untidy. Various infections can multiply inside the pores, which expand with inflammation.

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Classification of acne

The considered disease of hair follicles, sebaceous glands can be localized on the face, other areas of the dermis. This pathology is characterized by the formation on the dermis of the following kinds of inflammatory elements:

  1. Acne.
  2. Acne. They have 2 subspecies:
    • papules;
    • pustules.
  3. Nodules.
  4. Cysts.

The causes of acne are described below.

Causes of occurrence of

Experts distinguish between acne types due to the factors that provoked their occurrence:

  • endogenous .Their occurrence is provoked by internal causes;
  • exogenous .Their occurrence is provoked by external causes.

Endogenous acne can occur if there are:

  • hormonal changes. In this group, doctors also refer to the "hormonal splash" of adolescents;
  • inadequate response of the sebaceous glands( hereditary) to the rapidly growing blood level of male sex hormones. Increases in male hormones can occur in both sexes;
  • seborrhea. With her, endogenous acne manifests itself in adults;
  • infection, chronic diseases;
  • pathology of the ovaries.

The development of exogenous acne is facilitated by such factors:

  1. Dermis penetration of certain substances that can have a comedogenic effect( the ability to provoke blockage of the sebaceous glands, congestion of the dermis in the mouth of the hair follicle).These substances are represented by a lubricant, oils, preparations with tar. Contact with such substances can be in production.
  2. The use of cosmetics( immoderate).This applies to cosmetics, which contain fats( blush, cream powder, shadows).Even oil from sunburn can provoke the appearance of blackheads.
  3. Long-term friction of clothing, linen about dermis. With it, there is a blockage in the holes of the follicles. On the dermis to rub things such as a sports helmet, bedding, headgear, plaster bandage. The appearance of acne is associated with increased sweating. Also at risk are people who belong to immobilized patients. So there may be mechanical acne.
  4. Admission of anabolic steroids. These drugs are used by athletes, bodybuilders.
  5. Impact of heat, sun.
  6. Extruding acne.
  7. Excessive cleanliness.

Symptoms and methods for removing acne on the skin in women and men are described below.

Symptoms of

In the development of pathology in the patient observed:

  1. Increased secretion of the sebaceous gland.
  2. Hyperkeratosis. This pathology consists in thickening the horny layer of the dermis.
  3. Reproduction, activity of pathogenic organisms on the dermis.
  4. Inflammation.

When the secretion of secretion is elevated, there is an increase in the size of the sebaceous gland. This is how the enlarged pores appear on the dermis of the face. In the region of the mouth of the sebaceous duct thickening of the stratum corneum occurs. The scales of the dermis come off much faster than usual. The duct is blocked by these scales. For this reason, the sebaceous gland is stretched by secretion secreted, which can not escape through the contaminated duct.

Comedon is represented by the sebaceous gland, which, due to clogging, can not release fat. This bacon takes on a white color, which is contained inside the eel. When the comedon leaves the surface of the dermis, oxidation of this secret is noted. Black color of the head of the eel is explained by the fact that melanin is mixed with the fat.

Diagnosis of problem skin for acne is described below.

Acne in newborns( photo)

Acne Newborn Photo


Diagnosis of pathology is based on:

  • collection of anamnesis( it will help to establish the onset of the disease, as well as puberty puberty, the onset of menstruation, professional activity, the effect of previous treatment);
  • general examination( weight, height, physique feature is specified);
  • laboratory diagnosis. It consists in the delivery of a biochemical blood test( creatinine, glucose, urea, bilirubin, triglycerides, cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase), hormone levels in women on the 5th-7th day of the cycle( estradiol, free, luteinizing, follicle-stimulating testosterone, prolactin, cortisol, thyroid hormones, progesterone, dehydrotestosterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, globulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate), progesterone level check on the 21st to 23rd day of the cycle.

Diffiagnosis with the following diseases may be necessary: ​​

  • small-node sarcoidosis;
  • rosacea;
  • tuberculosis of the dermis;
  • adenoma of the sebaceous glands;
  • folliculitis;
  • demodicosis;
  • seborrheic dermatitis;
  • papular-pustular syphilis.

Let's find out how and how to treat acne, acne and acne on the face, chin, back, etc.


Treatment is aimed at the following tasks:

  • Elimination of emergent comedones.
  • Preventing the appearance of new comedones.
  • Decreased secretion production.
  • Elimination of inflammation.
  • Elimination of cosmetic defects.

Before starting therapy, it is necessary to have an examination with the following doctors:

  • gynecologist;
  • gastroenterologist;
  • dermatologist;
  • endocrinologist.

Therapy can last about 7 to 8 months.

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Therapeutic way of

Acne treatment using hardware methods is used as an adjunct therapy. From the therapeutic procedures are shown:

  • darsonvalization;
  • chemical peeling. It is carried out with the use of fruit acids, while their dose should be increased;
  • laser therapy, acne laser treatment;
  • cryomassage.

For gels, creams and other medications for acne treatment read below.

Drug medication

In acne therapy, external medicines are prescribed:

  • " Benzoyl peroxide". It has the following effects: bleaching, strong keratolytic. Under its influence the dissolution of keratinized tissues is noted. The drug is used as an antibacterial agent. To increase the effect, specialists prescribe medication simultaneously with sulfur preparations, azole compounds, antibiotics.
  • "Trethionin". Used when the above medication is ineffective or the patient has an allergy to it. It reduces the secretion, eliminates comedones, stabilizes the coronation of the epithelium, prevents the emergence of comedones.
  • "Azelaic acid". Used to produce antibacterial, anti-comedogenic, anti-inflammatory effects. The drug does not affect the production of gland secretions.

Antibiotics are also needed, intended for outdoor use. Their specialist can appoint if the first-line drugs are ineffective. They can also be prescribed for complications:

  • "Erythromycin". It is considered the most effective in the treatment of this disease. To increase the anti-inflammatory, antibacterial effect of the drug, it is prescribed with zinc.
  • "Clindamycin". Assign in therapy of staphylococci, propionibacteria.

Systemic antibiotics for oral administration are prescribed in conjunction with local therapy. The specialist can prescribe tetracyclines:

  • "Doxycycline".
  • "Minocycline."
  • "Erythromycin".
  • "Clindamycin".

Prevention of the disease

An ideal preventive method is proper care for the dermis. If a person has a tendency to develop this pathology, he should be more careful in the choice of cosmetics. Do not use fatty oils, ointments, cream.

Complications of

  • One of the peculiar complications of acne is psychoemotional disorder. Usually it occurs in adolescents because of low self-esteem. Usually, depression goes along with vivid manifestations of the disease.
  • The second complication is a cosmetic defect. After acne treatment, even large scars can remain. This problem is solved by modern cosmetology.

Forecast of

The prognosis of this pathology depends on many factors( age, cause of appearance, therapeutic method, peculiarities of the organism).When treating this problem, you need to remember:

  • Acne is classified as a chronic pathology. It is difficult to treat, prone to relapse. The aggravation may begin several years after the therapy.
  • When the disease develops, the skin can not be returned to its ideal condition.
  • Possible exacerbation of the disease in the first months of therapy.

Thanks to innovative therapies, specialists guarantee good cosmetic results, long-term remission.

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