Lymphomas are a group of oncopathologies that affect the lymphatic system. All lymphatic tumors are classified into Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's formations. One of the brightest representatives of non-Hodgkin's lymphatic tumors is Burkitt's lymphoma.
What is Burkitt's lymphoma?
A similar kind of lymph is formed from the cellular structures of the B-lymphocyte group.
The onset of lymphatic formation occurs in the lymph nodes, but with further progression of the tumor process it extends to the spinal cord, blood and bone marrow.
In the absence of appropriate therapeutic measures, education rapidly grows, reaching the terminal stage leading to the lethal termination of pathology.
In the photo a child with a berkitt lymphoma of the orbit of the eye
The lymphopump of Burkitt prefers young people and children, more often male, but among Russians it is found in isolated cases. Much greater prevalence of pathology was in African countries.
Forms of the disease
Specialists distinguish several specific forms of this category of malignant lymphatic formations:
- Endemic - it is often called African, because pathology is found in people of African American origin, mainly living in African countries;
- Sporadic - a similar variety of lymphoblasts of Burkitt is characterized by a rare prevalence and is about 1-2% of the total number of similar oncologies;
- Immunodeficiency - a similar form of lymphoma is found in patients with AIDS or HIV, also in people with congenital immunodeficiency states and taking drugs to suppress immune status( usually prescribed with inorganic transplantation).
Causes of development of
To determine for certain why healthy full-fledged cells begin to undergo abnormal changes and degenerate into malignant cellular structures, it is rather difficult, therefore, specific causes that cause such a disease have not yet been revealed.
Experts have established the existence of the relationship of the Epstein-Barr virus with similar lymphomas, but not always the carriage of this virus leads to pathology.
Some experts believe that the pathology has hereditary roots, as it often occurs in individuals with hereditary immune deficiency. In addition, there are a number of specific factors predisposing to the onset of such an oncological process:
- Activities related to contact with carcinogens, harmful production of ;
- Hostile environment of , due to unfavorable ecology, which is often observed in industrially developed areas;
- Radiation irradiation , including and in the treatment of cancer pathologies.
Pathology originates in the lymph nodes, therefore at the initial stages it is possible to suspect the presence of developing lymphoma on the swollen lymph nodes, which increase due to congestion of the infiltrate and malignant abnormal cellular structures.
Gradually, lymphonocology spreads to nearby organs. Such a factor often causes the formation of jaw formations, often sprouting into the thyroid gland and other organs.
As a result, edema forms on the neck, the jaw structures are deformed, the lymphocyte can block the way of the respiratory system, which can lead to suffocation.
At times, deformation spreads to the nose, teeth can fall out. In addition, Burkitt's lymphoma is able to germinate into the abdominal area, pancreas, liver or kidneys, ovaries, intestines, etc. Then the general symptoms of Burkitt's lymphoma are complemented by manifestations such as:
- febrile state;
- Pain syndrome in bone tissues, abdomen or temples;
- Bone strain;
- Taste or hearing impairment;
- Intestinal obstruction;
- Dyspepsia, etc.
Further progression leads to the formation of polypoid-like formations in the nasal cavity, characterized by intensive metastasis and abundant nasal bleeding. There is also a nervous system symptomatology.
Burkitt's lymphoma is characterized by successive staged progression.
- For the initial stages of the , the oncology process is characterized by its localization in one lymph node zone. Such a stage is transient, so the lymphoma quickly passes to the second stage of its development.
- In 2 stages of , tumor processes spread to the adjacent lymph node site located one side with the original focus relative to the diaphragmatic muscle.
- At stage 3 of the , lymph nodes that are located on the other side of the diaphragm are drawn into the lymphoplastic processes.
- On the final , the terminal stage, the oncoprocess extends far beyond the lymphatic system, affecting the internal organs.
In addition to the stage, a certain category A or B is assigned to the pathology diagnosis process. The A-category indicates that the pathology is asymptomatic, and the B category reports that the lymphoplacental process is accompanied by exhaustion, hypertension and hyperthermia.
Diagnostic procedures allow to reliably determine the nature of the lymphatic tumor, for which:
- Laboratory blood test;
- CT or PET-CT;
- Radiographic study;
- Study of cerebrospinal fluid.
The treatment regimen for Burkitt's lymphoma is based on several traditional techniques such as radiation treatment, chemotherapy and surgery, etc.
- Embimkhin and others.
Kolyut their courses. In general, the medication treatment can last for several years, during which the patient is prescribed interferon preparations, cytostatics, immunomodulators, etc. Such a polychemotherapeutic approach is most effective only at the first stages of the progression of the lymphocytic Burkitt. Sometimes it is supplemented with radiation irradiation.
In particularly difficult cases, a radical technique is used - bone marrow transplant. The most difficult moment in such treatment is the selection of the necessary donor with the maximum compatibility with the patient.
In the process of treatment, it is necessary to maintain immunity, since progressive lymphoplastic formation is often supplemented with concomitant secondary infectious lesions, then the probability of death of the patient is high, especially in childhood.
Prognosis in children and adults
If the pathology was detected in a timely manner( prior to the spread of the cells on the body), and the prescribed therapy was performed in accordance with the generally accepted protocol, then the probability of definitive cure with a more than 5-year remission period is high. Similar results can also be achieved with a bone marrow transplant.
If the lymphoplacental processes have spread to other organs, they respond to the therapeutic effect rather poorly, so the prognosis for Burkitt's lymphoma in such a situation is unfavorable.