In order to find out how nematode infection can occur, it is necessary to mention the peculiarities of their habitat. There are several hundred thousand subspecies of roundworms. All of them are allocated approximately the same anatomical structure and direct development cycle. For the sexual maturation of eggs or larvae of nematodes( as they look, you can easily see in the photo) does not need an intermediate host( cattle, for example, insects or pets).A direct development cycle can occur under different conditions. In free-living parasites, it flows in the soil or in water, in parasitic helminths in the human body, animal or fish. Some of them represent a real danger. That's why it's so important to know where the nematodes meet, how the roundworms spread, what are the causes of the outbreaks of helminthiases.
Pathways of infection with nematodes
It is difficult to list all sources of helminthic invasions. And all because there are quite a few of them. Nematodes live almost everywhere: on land and in water, infection can occur after eating meat of domestic animals, game. Larvae of nematodes are often found in fish living in fresh water bodies, but also in marine life round worms - frequent visitors( and this is clearly seen in the photo).Even during catching, there can be an infection with worms. The larvae of some subspecies of roundworms are found in the body of fry, used as bait. Infection with roundworms also occurs through insect bites, most subspecies fall into the host's body if the rules of personal hygiene are not respected.
The causes of infection by nematodes become obvious if someone is leading an incorrect lifestyle, if unsanitary conditions are a habitual phenomenon for him. At risk people are often in contact with the land, with cattle. It is difficult to avoid infection if the house has small children and pets( dogs and cats).As you can see, the ways of spreading nematodes are quite diverse, so it is so important to know which worms living in the water, in the soil, inside the living organism pose a threat to all mammals.
Nematodes dangerous to humans
There are several species that live in the soil, in fish, in livestock. Depending on the habitat, experts distinguish two types of nematodes - geological worms and biohelminths.
To geogelmints, it is possible to refer those round worms, whose eggs or larvae ripen in the soil. Infection by them occurs by eating unwashed vegetables and fruits, herbs and berries. You can bring such nematodes into the house by crossing the threshold of the dwelling in street shoes. Children are often infected with ascarids and pinworms, whipworms and hookworms, playing in the sandbox, ironing the wool of stray dogs. In the list of ways to transfer parasites you need to include drinking unboiled water, bathing in muddy bodies of water with standing water.
Causes of many serious diseases can be bionematodes - roundworms, living inside the body of domestic animals and fish. If there are cats and dogs in the house that suffer from toxocarosis or ascaridosis, this is a direct threat to each of us. The causative agents of these diseases are roundworms. By themselves, adults do not pose a threat to us, but here the larvae of the family taeniidae and toxocara canis are capable of causing great damage to health. In different ways they penetrate into it and disrupt the operation of virtually all internal systems. So, for example, if they settle in the eyeball, any of us can easily go blind, if the nematode larvae get into the ear, the patient will necessarily lose the hearing.
Approximately 650 species of roundworms live inside chordates. All of them are a potential cause for infection. The most common ones are those that affect the body of tropical aquarium fish living in stagnant water( Camallanus and Capillaria).Nematodes in chordates are more common than tapeworms. Parasites like to settle in the liver, in muscle tissue, in the skin, and even in the ribs. Individual subspecies were found in milk, as well as in caviar sacs.What types of fish do nematodes most often live in? Practically in all, who live in fresh and salty water, which are traditionally present in the menu of Russian and European cuisine. You can find nematodes in herring, pike, perch, cod, sea bass, horse mackerel and saury. Since larvae of roundworms tolerate high and low temperatures well, smoking, drying, salting, cooking he, can not provide complete safety in relation to infection with worms while eating sea delicacies. What diseases are capable of provoking nematodes that live in fish? Anisakidosis is a helminthiasis that causes symptoms of acute poisoning or an attack of appendicitis. Dangerous for humans are considered and phyllometroidosis - their causes are pink roundworms( they are clearly visible in the photo), the females live in the fish scales, and the males in the walls of the bubble responsible for buoyancy. This is the most common causative agent of invasions.
It is not difficult to recognize fish infected with nematodes. They are not recommended for eating:
- A soft carcass, which has clearly localized pits when pressed.
- Herring and other fish with turbid pupils and with parched mucosa.
- Individuals with sticky skin, having a sagging, heavily swollen abdomen.
- It is not necessary to eat fish, which when pressed from the anus opens incomprehensible fluid or muddy mucus.
Knowing where the round worms meet, how nematode infestation occurs, what causes it can provoke, you can keep your health.