Ascaride is a parasitic worm that lives in the human and animal body. Its body is rounded, and 3 lips surround the mouth, the parasite's skin is dense and elastic. The insides of the worm are located in the tubular part of his body. Ascaride is a sexual being, and the female is slightly larger than a male. The length of the latter is about 16-26 cm, and the female is 25 cm and reaches 40-45 cm.
In the section, the worm is round, which gave reason to attribute it to representatives of the type of roundworms, within which different species are distinguished. Special organs that help to attach to tissues, he does not. Its movement is directed towards the food entering the intestines, so this helminth is easily retained in the lumen of the digestive organs. From the outside, the body of the roundworm looks like a spindle. It is covered with a special cuticle, which has a dense consistency. The physiological role of the cuticle is to protect the worm from mechanical damage to food. It also protects the body of the worm from digestion by gastrointestinal enzymes.
The ascarid worm, like other nematodes( this is the second name of roundworms), reproduces sexually. Therefore, for the manifestation of invasive properties associated with the massiveness of infection, the presence in the intestine of both female and male individuals is necessary. A fertilized female worm has an annular groove, called a constriction. It is localized in the middle part of its body. For a day, each female of the roundworm can postpone 220,000 eggs, which together with the calves fall into the external environment.
The rounded eggs have an oval shape and are quite large. They remain viable in the environment, becauseoutside protected with a layer of 5 shells. However, there are certain substances and factors that can destroy this layer:
- ethyl alcohol and its types;
- various ethers;
- hot boiled water;
- natural sun rays.
It is important that larvae, in contrast to adults, require the presence of oxygen for their development. Therefore, from the intestine, they must necessarily get into the environment to go through a certain stage of their life cycle. Man gets eggs from the soil, through contaminated water, vegetables, fruits and berries. In the intestine lysis( dissolution) of the egg shells is observed, and the future larvae go out. Through the intestinal wall they enter directly into the bloodstream, and from there they begin movement throughout the body. Most often they penetrate the small circle into the lungs, causing the appearance of coughing and perspiration in the throat. When re-swallowed through the throat, where they got through the respiratory tract, they re-enter the intestine and begin to give out infectious eggs. In practice, there are cases when worms penetrated tissues and organs of a person not at the stage of larvae but as an adult. Under such conditions, the migration stage is absent.
Photos and what kinds of ascarids are( according to the classification, there are 120 species), can be found on the net. This will help to visualize possible consequences. Glist uses a person as an intermediate host, since his full maturation is impossible in the human body. Therefore, ascaris has an incomplete maturation cycle. Ascarid belongs to the Ascans family, that is, round worms. It differs from other helminths by the mouth, which is equipped with three lips, and its males have two spicules. The most famous species is the A. lumbricoides worm, which parasitizes only humans, type A. Mystax, parasitic in cats and dogs, and the species of worms A. megalocephala lives in the horse's body.
The class of ascarids A. lumbricoides mainly lives in the small intestine, becausethere is enough food. In some cases, the number of roundworms can be very large, leading to the development of mechanical intestinal obstruction. It is an indication for urgent surgical intervention with the removal of the ascarid coil.
Adult human ascaris( the most common species of this type) can not be transmitted from one person to another. Infection with a parasite of this type occurs through eggs, isolated with feces. As a rule, they were for a long time in the water, the earth or on the corpse of the deceased animal. Failure to observe basic hygiene rules will lead to infection. Therefore, you should always wash your hands, fruits, vegetables, you can not drink from open water and from the tap( this water should be boiled, because at 100 ° C eggs die).
To prevent parasitism of ascarids of a dangerous species in their garden plot, it is necessary to regularly clean the soil of contamination with feces and not to use human excreta as fertilizer. You can not drink water from open and untested sources. And it is very important to fight the flies, as they are carriers of the roundworm larvae, so you can not leave dirty dishes, fruits, vegetables on the table, and before washing you should wash them. An important factor of infection with roundworms is a poorly equipped cesspool located on the garden plot. Therefore, the observance of elementary sanitary norms in the construction of the latrine is a necessary preventive measure. Animals are also a source of infection, so after contact with them, hand washing is mandatory!