Tumor diseases of the stomach of benign nature are most often represented by polyposis of this part of the body. Despite the absence of a cancer process, the transition of polyps to this form of pathology is possible, so their treatment should be timely.
The concept of
The polyp in the stomach( code ICD-10 - K31.7) is a neoplasm of the epithelium that appears on the inner wall of the organ and comes from the cells of the mucous membrane.
The share of multiple and single stomach formations accounts for approximately the same number of clinical cases of polyposis. The neoplasms of the pylorus are more often revealed, and sometimes the pathology of the body of the organ.
On the photo polyp in the stomach
A common form of the disease, when the stomach is totally affected by polyps, is rarely seen - no more than 1% of cases.
In appearance, the tumor can be on a wide base, on a thin stalk( sessile or stalk polyps), hangs down into the stomach cavity and tends to grow. The form of the tumors is spherical, papillary, oval, mushroom-shaped, the surface is smooth, villous.
Causes of the appearance of
Most often the etiology of polyposis is caused by the chronic existence in the gastrointestinal tract of the inflammatory process - gastritis, especially its hypertrophic and atrophic forms.
People with such diseases are almost always diagnosed with Helicobacter pylori infection , which is also considered one of the important risk factors for the development of benign gastric tumors. Also polyps are often diagnosed at the edge of a chronic ulcer, which can also provoke their appearance.
Other experts call the following risk factors for the appearance of polyps in the stomach:
- Weighed down heredity. Many people have a tendency to the appearance of tumors of other localizations, to family cases of polyposis. Especially often in predisposed people in older age adenomatous polyps appear.
- Living in a poor environment, working in hazardous production. These factors can provoke various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including benign and malignant tumors.
- Existence in the blood and tissues of the human papillomavirus. This virus rarely causes the development of polyps of the stomach, but still it is possible.
- Abuse of drugs that strongly irritate the mucous membranes of the digestive tract, for example, NSAIDs.
- Incorrect food, reception of harmful, smoked, fried foods, as well as frequent consumption of hot food.
Classification and treatment of polyps
The following types of neoplasms are distinguished in the structure:
- Hyperplastic polyps. Occur several times more often than others, represent an expansion upward and in the sides of the mucosal tissue. Extremely rare are the threat of malignancy, so they can use observational tactics, conservative treatment. Often pass after elimination of bacteria Helicobacter pylori.
- Adenomatous polyps. The structure is classified into papillary, tubular, and mixed. There are rare, but the most dangerous, carry the risk of cancer - carcinoma. Get rid of the adenomatous stomach polyp can only be surgically, with a large tumor size is often used cavitary operations.
- Glandular polyps. Appear from the glandular cells of the stomach, representing a formation on a thin stem. They are a subtype of adenomatous neoplasms - their tubular( glandular) form. This disease is necessarily subject to surgical treatment.
- Hyperplasia-associated polyps. Appear due to impaired regeneration of the glands of the organ. Such tumors are almost never malignant. Their treatment can be carried out conservatively.
Localized polyps can be found in:
- Antrum( antrum) of the stomach.
- Cardiac( cardia) of the stomach.
- The pyloric( pyloric) department of the stomach.
Treatment of tumors depends, first of all, not on localization, but on type, but in the cardiac department the polyps are removed, since there they are more often malignant.
Symptoms of a tumor in children and adults
The only difference in manifestations of polyposis of the stomach in adults and children is the earlier appearance of symptoms in young patients. But, given that in childhood this pathology is rare, such differences are of no fundamental importance.
The clinical picture often does not make itself felt, therefore a new formation is found when performing a routine examination with a gastroenterologist.
But when the tumor is provoked by chronic stomach diseases or has already grown significantly, there may be such signs:
- Aching pain in the stomach area
- Stretching, heaviness after eating
- Discomfort after 2 hours or more after eating food
- Belching and heartburn
- Fallingappetite, weight loss
- Painful odor in the mouth
- Sometimes - bleeding from polyps with darkening of the stool, vomiting with blood
Complication of the existence of a large neoplasm that is not far awayeco from the beginning of the small intestine, it may be his loss in the intestine and the pyloric valve jamming. This complication gives an acute pain syndrome, which sometimes causes a person to call an ambulance.
Are polyps in the stomach dangerous?
The consequences of hyperplastic polyps are rarely serious, but sometimes they are multiple, disrupt the function of the stomach, fall into the intestines, which can cause a lot of problems for a person.
Adenomas are much more dangerous. Almost 60% of cases in their structure with histological examination revealed neoplastic cells, which are normal in the stomach should not be.
Over time, in 41% of situations, such polyps become gastric cancer, and the likelihood increases with the tumor itself in size. Much higher risk of malignancy in multiple adenomatous polyps - it is almost 81%.
Diagnosis of the disease
The most accurate and simple method for detecting a polypous disease in the stomach is fibrogastroduodenoscopy.
It is carried out at any address to the gastroenterologist, since only such a procedure will allow a specialist to visualize all changes occurring in the stomach, including the development of polyposis.
Also, to guide a doctor about the presence of tumors in the digestive tract can radiograph the stomach with contrast. This method of diagnosis will help determine the location, size of the lesion, as well as identify violations of filling the stomach, which is possible when swallowing contrast fluid.
Usually benign tumors have distinct edges, moderate sizes, whereas a regenerating polyp can already acquire uneven edges, greatly expand.
After the initial detection of the neoplasm necessarily make a biopsy, although in appearance the doctor can already assume the nature of the pathology. Biopsy does not require anesthesia, since it is performed during FGS, everything happens quickly and painlessly.
After receiving the results of the survey, they draw conclusions about the type of the disease and decide on treatment or observance of expectant management.
How to cure education?
If there is no indication for an emergency removal of stomach polyps, the patient is recommended conservative treatment along with observational tactics, the reliability and safety of which should be confirmed by regular examinations.
Antibiotics( Flemoclav, Clarithromycin, Trichopolum, etc.) are prescribed for drugs against bacteria that live in the stomach.
Also often used drugs to reduce the secretion of the glands of the stomach, antacids( enveloping agents).In general, the treatment is aimed at arresting the frequent causes of polyposis - gastritis, ulcers, erosion, that is - chronic inflammation.
Folk remedies can also be used, but only after approval by a doctor and under the supervision of the FGS( at least every 4-6 months).
In the presence of indications( adenoma, large, multiple polyps), surgery is recommended - polypectomy. It is made through esophageal access by means of endoscopic techniques, using a laser.
If this is not possible( broad polyp base, large organ area lesions, malignancy of the neoplasm), the operation is done through a cut on the peritoneum. In particularly severe cases, it is necessary to remove part of the stomach or the entire organ.
The basis of therapeutic nutrition for polyps in the stomach is the prevention of further irritation of the walls of the stomach and reducing the inflammatory reaction. For this, it is necessary to exclude sharp, acidic, hot, cold dishes, rough food.
It is mandatory to quit smoking, because cigarettes provoke further inflammation of the stomach. To eat follows 5 times / day, but little by little, so as not to overload the gastrointestinal tract. To prevent pathology, it is necessary: Afterremoval of polyps in 40-50% of cases grow again. If the removal was successful - a relapse within 3-5 years did not appear, then the prognosis is favorable, and we are talking about any type of neoplasm. The lack of treatment measures for certain types of illness entails their transition to stomach cancer, which has a very difficult prognosis. Video about endoscopic removal of stomach polyps:
It is mandatory to quit smoking, because cigarettes provoke further inflammation of the stomach. To eat follows 5 times / day, but little by little, so as not to overload the gastrointestinal tract.
To prevent pathology, it is necessary:
Afterremoval of polyps in 40-50% of cases grow again. If the removal was successful - a relapse within 3-5 years did not appear, then the prognosis is favorable, and we are talking about any type of neoplasm.
The lack of treatment measures for certain types of illness entails their transition to stomach cancer, which has a very difficult prognosis.
Video about endoscopic removal of stomach polyps: