The second place among malignant neoplasms of the stomach after gastric adenocarcinoma is ring-shaped( the second name is the ring-like cell) cancer.
This type of tumor can affect any part of the stomach, while the growth of the tumor from the mucous layer passes to the lower lying, that is, the neoplasm captures all layers of the organ. Ring-like type of cancer refers to the most malignant tumors prone to rapid metastasis.
Concept and statistics
The name of the cell carcinoma of the stomach is associated with a special transformation of cancer cells. Atypical cells localized in the glandular epithelium, in connection with the change in their functions, begin to accumulate such a substance as mucin.
Normally, a certain amount of this substance protects cells from bacteria. But when the mucin becomes too much, the nucleus of the cell and its displacement to its shell are squeezed. At histological research atypical cancer cells in this case look like a ring.
The tumor extends not only in depth, but also grows in breadth, its boundaries are not clear, which makes it difficult to choose a method of treatment. Infiltrative germination of the cancer is considered unfavorable, and the spread of tumor cells with lymph flow is rapid.
The examination of patients with cricoid carcinoma allowed to establish that approximately in 40% of patients the tumor germinates all layers.
With early detection of malignant formation before the appearance of metastases, its cure is possible. Among young patients with a cricoid form of gastric cancer more women, than this fact is explained, scientists have not yet established.
Almost all of the causes that have adverse effects on the organ and other types of malignant tumors lead to the formation of cricoid gastric cancer.
First and foremost, oncologists recognize the wrong food as a disease-provoking factor.
The likelihood of developing a ring-shaped cell form of a malignant tumor increases manifold if a person:
- Prefers to eat salt, pickled, smoked and overcooked foods.
- Eats dry, rarely consumes cooked dishes.
- Abuse alcohol.
Unreasonable diet, alcohol lead to the fact that the mucous layer of the stomach is constantly exposed to irritation, and this leads to a change in the structure of the cells and the violation of their functions. As a result, normal cells are gradually transformed into atypical cells.
In addition to negatively affecting the stomach nutrition characteristics among the triggering cricoid gastric cancer factors are allocated:
- Hereditary predisposition. The probability of malignant tumors is increased if the blood relatives have stomach tumors of different types.
- Presence in the stomach Helicobacter pylori. This microorganism leads to a change and inflammation of the mucous layer, it is under its influence that acute inflammatory reactions become chronic.
- Unfavorable living conditions. In some areas in the soil, the content of cobalt, copper, molybdenum is increased. These trace elements contain carcinogens, they can pass into plant foods.
- Smoking. Tobacco pitches are a poison that is dangerous for the body, provoking not only irritation of the mucous layer, but also decomposing into dozens of carcinogenic elements. It is noticed that in people who smoke, the formation of a malignant tumor begins with the cardiac department, which follows immediately behind the esophagus.
The probability of developing cancer in the stomach is increased if a person already has precancerous diseases. To their group of oncologists include polyps of the stomach, dysplasia, atrophic gastritis.
Duodenogastric reflux also poses a certain danger. In the presence of precancerous diseases, the risk of their transition to cancer is increased if proper treatment of pathologies does not exist.
Manifestations of the disease
Ring-like gastric cancer develops rapidly and is often detected only in the second or fourth stage.
The rarity of the diagnosis at the initial stage of tumor formation is due to the fact that there are no specific symptoms at this time.
The first signs of the disease begin to appear only after the growing tumor grows below the mucous layer and spreads in breadth.
At this time, you can pay attention to the following changes in health:
- The emergence of a rapid sense of satiety from food intake. The tumor reduces the size of the stomach cavity and therefore a heavy weight appears from excessive amounts of food.
- Periodically appearing nausea, bloating, diarrhea, or constipation.
- Belching with air, heartburn.
- Increasing weakness, apathy.
- Temperature rise.
A smaller intake into the body of food leads to the fact that a person does not get the right amount of microelements and vitamins. Violation of digestion worsens metabolic processes.
All these pathological changes cause a lack of hemoglobin in the blood. Anemia manifests weakness, pallor or yellowing of the skin, their dryness, increased hair loss.
With stomach cancer, a sick person experiences a special aversion to meat, fish, and his weight is steadily declining. If the tumor seizes the cardiac part of the organ and passes to the esophagus, then dysphagia develops. This condition is characterized by a difficult swallowing of the food lump, a sensation of the presence of a foreign object in the throat.
When the tumor is located in the lower parts of the stomach, it can pass to the small intestine, which causes disruption of peristalsis. Particularly formidable complication is partial or complete obstruction, for the elimination of which an emergency operation is often appointed.
With the breakdown of cancer, rupture of the altered blood vessels causes bleeding. They can be determined by the appearance of a black almost tarry stool or by vomiting with an admixture of blood.
Malignant processes in the body negatively affect the state of the nervous system. Apathy, depressive states, fast fatigue, irritability, poor sleep - all these symptoms appear in patients with stomach cancer at the end of the second and the beginning of the third stage.
At the last stages, the cancer intoxication is markedly increasing, the pronounced cachexia develops, the appetite is absent, ascites are possible, the patients prefer to lie more. The appearance of metastases leads to the appearance of signs of organ damage with secondary cancerous foci and the function of many vital systems is disrupted.
Stages of cricoid gastric cancer
- Zero stage is exhibited if the cancer cells are only in the surface layer of the stomach. It is determined by histological means.
- The first stage - the cancerous formation captures only the mucous layer. Single tumor cells can be found in the muscle layer and in one group of lymph nodes.
- The second stage of tumor cells is detected in the outer layer of the organ walls.
- The third stage. The tumor captures all layers, reveals its spread to nearby organs. In the malignant process, the small intestine, the liver, the spleen, the kidneys, the peritoneum, the pancreas, the diaphragm can be involved. Several groups of lymph nodes are affected.
- The fourth stage is exhibited when the cancer passes not only to neighboring organs, but secondary foci are detected in distant organs.
How to make a diagnosis?
Any undefined pain, changes in well-being, dyspeptic disorders are those symptoms with which it is absolutely necessary to consult a therapist or gastroenterologist.
The doctor will prescribe diagnostic procedures after the first initial examination, collection of anamnesis and complaints, on the basis of which an exact diagnosis can be made.
In order to establish or exclude a cricoid type of stomach cancer, the person who is being ill is advised to undergo:
- Laboratory diagnostics - take blood tests. A general analysis shows an inflammatory process, a decrease in hemoglobin. Biochemical - violations in the work of the liver, heart. If a cancer is suspected, an analysis is also made for the presence of cancer markers in the blood.
- Gastroscopy. This method of investigation consists in the introduction into the human stomach of an endoscope with a camera, through which it is possible to visually see all the changes on the mucous layer. During gastroscopy, a piece of altered tissue is taken for histology, that is, a biopsy is performed.
- Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity is necessary for the detection of all changes and secondary foci of cancer.
- Fluoroscopy with contrast. This procedure reveals changes in the size of the stomach cavity.
- Computed tomography is necessary to determine how widespread a tumor is, what layers of the stomach it covers and whether there are metastases in other organs.
If a patient is diagnosed with cricoid carcinoma of the stomach, in most cases he is offered a surgical procedure.
In the early stages of cancer, the tumor itself is removed, the nearby part of the stomach and, if necessary, lymph nodes.
Late surgery is prescribed to remove secondary foci. If the tumor captures most of the stomach, then it is possible to completely cut off the organ.
Another way to treat the transstate-cell gastric cancer is chemotherapy. Chemotherapy drugs are prescribed for different purposes. Their use before surgery can reduce the area of the malignant process, which improves the prognosis of surgical intervention.
The appointment of a course of chemistry after surgery is necessary to destroy the remaining micro foci of cancer in the body.
In advanced cases, chemotherapy is a method of palliative therapy. That is, antitumor drugs are used to facilitate the patient's well-being and to prolong his life.
Radiation therapy for treating patients with gastric cancer is rarely used. This is due to the fact that malignant processes cover a larger area, and this reduces the effectiveness of irradiation. And
. In addition, patients are selected drugs to reduce the pain syndrome, to improve digestion of food and medications that improve the work of the heart, kidneys.
Prognosis for ring-cell carcinoma of the stomach
Ring-like gastric cancer is a disease characterized by an extremely aggressive course.
When cancer is detected in the third stage, only about 40% of people live for five years without recurrence of the disease. At this stage, there is already metastasis, which modern methods of therapy can not cope with until the end.
At the last stage, death occurs quickly and it can be postponed for several months only with the help of maintenance therapy. But even in such patients there is a chance to live for about 5 years, it ranges from 5 to 10%.
In order to protect yourself from the development of cancer in the stomach should always adhere to a rational and healthy diet.
And in the presence of chronic diseases, such as peptic ulcer disease, reflux esophagitis, chronic gastritis, it is necessary to be examined at a frequency of one to two times a year. This allows us to identify atypical changes at an early stage.
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