Dysbacteriosis - a violation of useful intestinal microflora, in which the number of beneficial lacto- and bifidobacteria decreases, and the number of harmful microorganisms increases. This disease occurs quite often in adults, but with a greater frequency in newborn infants.
Also, as a result of the sociological survey, it was revealed that the intestinal dysbacteriosis, the symptoms of which may be different, was diagnosed in 90% of the adult population of Russia at least once. Some doctors believe that this disease can be both independent and accompanying, for example, to accompany duodenal ulcer or chronic gastritis.
In this article, we will tell you all about the dysbacteriosis of the intestine in adults: consider its causes, the first symptoms, as well as modern methods of treating dysbacteriosis with drugs.
What is it? The causes of dysbacteriosis of the intestine in adults there are many. In some, he appears due to some pathologies in the intestine( congenital or acquired), in others, the dysbacteriosis is caused by complications after a previous illness. In such situations, the number of bacteria living in the body increases. The overall balance is changing, and microorganisms find themselves all the conditions for survival and further prosperity.
Among the most common causes of intestinal dysbiosis are the following :
- unbalanced nutrition;
- intestinal infections;
- long-term treatment with hormonal or non-steroid drugs;
- reception of antibiotics;
- immunodeficiency status;
- radiation and chemotherapy;
- alcohol abuse;
- presence of intestinal parasites;
- abnormal liver function;
- frequent stress or depression;
- chronic gastrointestinal diseases.
Still, most often develop a dysbacteriosis after antibiotics. When taking drugs, the epithelium of the intestine is affected and the composition of the microflora is changed. The consequence of uncontrolled consumption of antibiotics can be the emergence of strains of bacteria resistant to treatment.
Symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis in adults
The clinical picture depends on the severity of pathological processes in the intestine. The main symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis in adults include:
- unpleasant feeling of a crowded intestine;
- a constant feeling of nausea and headache;
- changed the composition of the stool consistency, which becomes semi-liquid with a greenish color.
All these symptoms can also be accompanied by fever, it does not always happen, but, nevertheless, it occurs quite often. At a dysbacteriosis digestion most of all suffers. Since food in the intestine is first broken down by bacteria, and then absorbed into the bloodstream. Without the help of microorganisms, the body simply can not absorb many nutrients, it perceives them as alien, rejects. Therefore, there is nausea, vomiting, loose stools.
With bowel dysbacteriosis, there are four stages of bowel microbial disorders:
- Slight increase in the concentration of the pathogenic flora of and a decrease in the number of obligate bacteria. Symptom, as a rule, is absent.
- Critical decrease in the concentration of useful microflora , rapid growth of pathogenic flora. This stage is often manifested by symptoms such as diarrhea, constipation and flatulence.
- Active propagation of pathogens , inflammation of the intestinal mucosa.
- Total depletion of the body , avitaminosis, obligate microflora is almost completely replaced by pathogenic and opportunistic fungi / bacteria.
The following forms of dysbiosis can also be distinguished along the course:
- Latent( compensated) is a latent current that does not lead to changes in the human condition.
- The subcompensated is the appearance of the first signs of impaired intestinal function due to local inflammatory phenomena.
- Decompensated - a decrease in the resistance of the body, embracing pathological processes of the thick and small intestine.
The division at the stage is very conditional, the disease is judged by its actual manifestations. The most characteristic symptoms of dysbiosis today are metabolic disorders, body heat supply, low energy supply of colon epithelium, reduced synthesis of B12 vitamins, pantothenic acid, and a decrease in antiviral, antitumor protection and local immunity.
To understand how to treat the intestinal dysbacteriosis, it is necessary not only to diagnose a symptom, but also to determine the cause of its development in adults. Therefore, after collecting anamnesis and finding out the possible causes of dysfunction of the intestinal microflora, the gastroenterologist prescribes a complete examination of the digestive system, and in the case of a chronic course of dysbacteriosis - and the immune system.
From laboratory diagnostic methods use :
- bacteriological culture of feces, seeding on dysbiosis;
- microscopic examination of feces;
- examination of scraping from the intestinal wall.
Determination of the ratio of microorganisms is made by sowing feces on a special nutrient medium, favorable for the reproduction of bacteria. A few days later, the microflora is examined in detail under a microscope, after which the count of bacteria in one gram of material is counted.
Unlike bacteriological research, biochemical analysis for dysbiosis is performed more quickly and simplistically. The method is based on the detection of the spectrum of fatty acids, which serve as a product of the vital activity of microorganisms. Biochemical research allows us to determine not only the imbalance of the intestinal microflora, but also the specific department of the digestive tract, where violations were manifested, as well as the stage of the disease.
Treatment of intestinal dysbiosis in adults
The treatment scheme also largely depends on the cause of intestinal dysbacteriosis. However, adult therapy should always be comprehensive and include all the specific activities:
- combating excess bacterial colonization of the small intestine;
- improvement of intestinal absorption and digestion;
- stimulation of the general reactivity of the body( increase of immunity);
- recovery of normal intestinal motility;
- eliminating the imbalance of microorganisms in the large intestine.
It is also recommended to adhere to a strict diet that excludes products that increase gas production and contain coarse fiber. At least 4 times a week, and preferably daily, you should eat sour-milk products. Preference should be given to those of them that are additionally enriched with useful lactic acid bacteria.
Drug treatment for dysbacteriosis in adults is aimed at eliminating its symptoms, restoring normal intestinal microflora and correcting the immune status. Drugs for the treatment of dysbacteriosis in each case should appoint a doctor.
Symptomatic therapy includes the use of antispasmodics( papaverine, drotaverin), antidiarrheal and laxatives( loperamide, lactulose, forlax).According to the indications, it is possible to take cholagogue( legalon, cholagogue) and enzyme preparations( pancreatin, festal, mezim) preparations.
When using complex therapy to suppress pathogenic microflora, the following drug groups are used:
- Antibacterial drugs .With intestinal dysbacteriosis, they are prescribed exclusively with the established form of the disease. In this case, it is very important to take into account the sensitivity spectrum of the microorganism to antibiotics.
- Drugs from the bacteriophage group are viruses that can penetrate into the bacterial cell and gradually dissolve it.
- Preparations from the group of intestinal antiseptics .Fluoroquinolones( ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin), nitrofurans( furazolidone, nifuroxazide) can be used.
- Use of probiotics, which contain living bacteria.
- Prebiotics - substances that stimulate the development of normal microflora and suppress the reproduction of pathogenic( lactulose, galactose);
- Vegetable antiseptics are active against staphylococci .Use an alcohol solution of Chlorophyllipt, which is previously diluted in water.
- Immunomodulators - to raise local and general immunity and accelerate the recovery of normal intestinal microflora( dibazol, tincture of echinacea).
- Multivitamin complexes for replenishment of deficiency of vitamins A, D, E( decamewith, multitabs).
Undoubtedly, the main medical measures for intestinal dysbiosis should be directed to the underlying disease, which is the cause of microbial landscape changes. Otherwise, all efforts will be ineffective, and short-term improvement will be replaced by the resumption of symptoms.
Probiotics are drugs for the effective treatment of intestinal dysbacteriosis, they contain microorganisms that have a positive effect on the intestinal microflora. In order for the microorganism to pass through the upper parts of the digestive tract with minimal losses, it is placed in an acid-sensitive capsule.
All probiotics can be conditionally divided into several groups:
- Monocomponent .They consist of one type of bacteria - bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, colibacillus - Bifidumbacterin, Lactobacterin, Colibacterin.
- Polycomponent .They contain several types of bacteria, colibacillus, bifidumbacterium, lactobacilli - Linex, Bifiform, Bifikol.
- Combined .They contain symbiotic communities of major bacteria and strains that are immune to most antibiotics in combination with the nutrient medium and immunoglobulin complexes. Linex, Rioflora immuno, Bifikol.
- Synbiotics .These medicines are produced with a competent combination of pre- and probiotics, forming ready-made complex medicines, for example, Bifidobac, Maltodophylus, Laminolact.
- Antagonists of .To probiotics, it is possible to classify antagonists, these are microorganisms that can also suppress the development of opportunistic pathogens, such as antidiarrheal drugs such as Enterol, Bactisporin, Bactisubtil.
It should be understood that with severe forms of dysbacteriosis, the use of only probiotics and prebiotics is not enough, it is also necessary to use additional antibacterial agents, intestinal antiseptics.
Prebiotics are indigestible food constituents that contribute to improving health by stimulating the activity or growth of certain groups of bacteria that live in the large intestine. Prebiotics are treated with digestive enzymes and are not absorbed in the upper parts of the digestive tract. Prebiotics not only contribute to improving the metabolic activity of natural microflora, but also inhibit the multiplication of pathogenic bacteria, the body does not reject them.
To effective prebiotics include:
- Non-digestible disaccharides are Lactulose( Normase, Dufalac, Goodluck, Prelax, Lactusan), Lactitol( Export), GASTROINTEAST transit prebiotic( fructo-oligosaccharides, extracts of artichoke, lemon and green tea), lactic acids- Hilak forte.
Prebiotics are also found in dairy products, corn flakes, cereals, bread, onion, chicory field, garlic, beans, peas, artichoke, asparagus, bananas and many other products. Their properties are most pronounced in fructose-oligosaccharides( FOS), inulin, galacto-oligosaccharides( GOS), lactulose, lactitol.
Antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action are appointed in those cases when the excess of pathogenic microflora in the intestines caused the violation of absorption and led to digestive disorders, as well as the development of infectious inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
In the most severe cases, preference is given to antibiotics from the tetracycline series, penicillins, cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. In more light situations, a specialist can prescribe antimicrobial agents that have a bactericidal effect in the luminal gut( Furazolidone).
The standard course of such therapy does not exceed 7-10 days. After the completion of taking antibiotics or antimicrobials, adults are advised to take sorbents( Enterosgel, Polyphepanum) to cleanse the intestines from dead bacteria and the products of their vital activity.
In the treatment of dysbacteriosis caused by the intake of antibiotics, the main principle is the prevention of dysbiosis - the rational use of antibiotics: in no case should you drink them unreasonably.
At home, there are several effective ways how to treat intestinal dysbiosis in adults with the help of diets. Food should be balanced, with the maximum amount of essential trace elements. More useful and nutritious foods, less "forbidden" food, semi-finished products, confectionery and fast food products.
From the menu it is necessary to exclude :
- alcohol;Smoking smoked
- pickled and canned foods;
- meat of fatty varieties;
- fried food;
- fatty and concentrated broths and soups based on them;
- products made of shortcake;
- refined sugar;
In addition, it is necessary to eliminate drinks and products, promoting the formation of gas :
- white porridge( from mango, rice);
- white bread;
- whole milk;
- sweet apples;
- gas containing drinks( including mineral waters, sparkling wines), etc.
With the help of a well-chosen diet, the intestinal motility normalizes. And, of course, we must remember that the therapeutic diet will require many restrictions, and be prepared for the fact that it is much more "impossible" than "possible."
Preventive measures are usually aimed at eliminating the causes of dysbiosis. Therefore, they are:
- rational antibiotic therapy( many doctors advise, together with antibiotics, to take prebiotics);
- healthy eating;
- normalization of the rest regime, psychoemotional loads and labor;
- timely detection and therapy of digestive ailments;
- epidemiological measures in infectious foci.
Also remember that the treatment of dysbacteriosis was effective and did not last for long months, it should be started when the first symptoms occur. Do not ignore the warning signs: if you have unpleasant gastrointestinal manifestations, and the change in the nature of nutrition toward a healthier one does not really help, it is better to visit a gastroenterologist.