Atrial extrasystole is a pathological phenomenon in the heart characterized by arrhythmia of cardiac contractions caused by the movement of the focus of excitation from the sinus-atrial node to the atrium. The phenomenon is temporary and is not an irreversible persistent heart disease.
Features of the pathology of
Patients suffering from coronary heart disease and severe arterial hypertension, the condition of the atrial extrasystole presages the onset of an attack of atrial fibrillation or increased heart rate. Healthy people can detect cardiac rhythm failure with excessive caffeine consumption or states of psychoemotional stress. The condition of atrial extrasystole is not a life-threatening condition if the symptoms caused by it are not accompanied by other signs of concomitant diseases. With prolonged extrasystole, a life-threatening condition of heart failure occurs.
For children, extrasystole is a threat to life also in a protracted form, some manifestations of the pathological phenom
enon indicate a possible overfatigue of the child's body. As other provoking factors are stresses, concomitant diseases of the liver and digestive organs, congenital heart diseases and cardiomyopathy.
About what is a single, first, blocked and other atrial extrasystole, and also about its other forms, read on.
Atrial extrasystoles on ECG
Depending on frequency, density and other factors, atrial extrasystoles are classified:
- By the time of onset of the rhythm failure:
- On the frequency of occurrence:
- for 1 minute from 1 to 5 failures are recorded( rare atrial extrasystole);
- per minute there are 6 - 15 extrasystoles( medium);
- frequency exceeds 15 per minute( frequent atrial extrasystole);
- For arrhythmia density:
- single atrial extrasystole( if originating in one atrium);
- paired( extrasystoles are simultaneous in both atria);
- By frequency of occurrence:
- spontaneous abbreviations, not amenable to rhythm;
- with ordered rhythms( allorhythmic):
- i.bigemia( after extrasystoles the normal contraction, ie, the ratio of 50% / 50%, follows);
- ii.trigeminia( normal contraction is alternated with two extrasystoles);
- By the degree of manifestation:
- is a hidden character;
- for registration;
- By the nature of the occurrence:
Quite often the atrial extrasystole has a mixed character, which can be differentiated by an experienced cardiologist with an available electrocardiogram.
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The following video contains tips from Elena Malysheva for all who have experienced an atrial extrasystole:
Healthy people note the occurrence of atrial extrasystoles in the abuse of beverages with a high caffeine content, after psychoemotional stress, physical overfatigue, smoking and drinking. Rarely the causes of pathology are not clear( idiopathic form).
Provoking factors for the failure of the rhythm of atrial contractions are also:
- hyperthyroid state of the thyroid, leading to thyrotoxicosis;
- overdose of euphyllin;
- taking medications to prevent arrhythmia;
- digitalis intoxication;
- of inflammation in the pericardial bag - pericarditis;
- radical treatment of severe heart disease;
- different forms of cardiosclerosis;
- mitral valve prolapse;
- ischemic heart disease;
- high blood viscosity;
- rheumatic fever;
- acute myocardial infarction;
- deficiency of potassium in the body;
- metabolic syndrome;
- hemochromatosis and sarcoidosis with subsequent heart lesions;
- arterial hypertension;
- blood flow disorders of a stagnant nature.
The development of atrial extrasystoles is not always felt by patients. At occurrence at night the patient wakes up from fear and the raised level of uneasiness, feels "somersaults" of heart. The number and density of extrasystoles do not affect the patient's well-being. With complaints of cardiac fading and frequent heartbeat, it subsequently requires diagnosis to detect or eliminate atrial fibrillation.
Frequent violations of the atrial rhythm cause an overexcitement of the nervous system. Patients complain of rapid breathing at rest, circling in the head, "captivity before the eyes", flashing of flies, etc. The sensations of the extrasystoles, like the electrocardiogram readings, flow according to the scheme: a prolonged pause of the rhythm - a strong push - again a pause.
With frequent cases of extrasystoles, a cardiologist is required to monitor cardiac electrical activity per day. To distinguish the symptoms of atrial fibrillation and attacks of angina with manifestations of atrial extrasystoles is not always possible for both the patient and the district therapist. Drugs used to normalize the rhythm of the heart, selected by the patient independently, can exacerbate the manifestations and lead to acute heart failure, the intensity of which determines the most dangerous consequence - clinical death.
Diagnosis begins with a patient's examination and data collection for anamnesis. The patient should mention how often the heart began to worry, how long it worried him, what diseases he had suffered, the nature of the symptoms and feelings of heartbeat, etc. After that, the doctor prescribes instrumental and physical diagnostics.
Methods of instrumental diagnostics of atrial extrasystoles include:
- electrocardiogram( ECG), which is deciphered for signs of atrial extrasystole and its morphological form;
- treadmill test;
- wearing daily electrocardiograph.
Physical methods for detecting the disease are conducted with listening to the rhythm of the heart with a phonendoscope and examining the frequency of cardiac contractions when measuring the pulse.
Treatment of atrial extrasystole
The diagnostic results will be interpreted by the doctor and the direction of treatment is selected. It is possible that the development of the disease can be prevented by prophylactic measures or, depending on the stage of the disease, a scheme is obtained.
The factors that caused the appearance of pathology should be eliminated, for which the patient fundamentally changes the way of life:
- refuses bad habits,
- normalizes the diet,
- does not forget about active motor mode,
- reduces consumption of coffee, strong tea.
If these measures are not enough, tactics of treatment with medicines is chosen. The cardiologist also sends to exclude pathologies of another character of the patient to a rheumatologist, a therapist and a neurologist.
In acute atrial extrasystole, an emergency is caused. Urgent measures to restore the normal rhythm of the atria are the following urgent medicines:
- Panangin and its analogues, if there is no kidney failure;
- Stroptil with the exclusion of signs of acute myocardial infarction;
- Metoprolol belonging to the β-blocker group;
- Finoptin and its analogues, blocking calcium activity.
The decision on heart surgery is taken only in extreme cases, when the atrial extrasystole is accompanied by severe cardiac pathologies that are not amenable to drug treatment.
Unexplained forms of the disease, manifested from time to time, can be eliminated with extracts of leaves of the motherwort and Valerian officinalis, sold in pharmacies at an inexpensive price.
People who have once experienced disease manifestations may have these drugs in their home medicine chest. With a repeated course of the disease are taken by dropwise inside.
The provoking factors of the onset of the disease must be excluded by man in order to preserve health and longevity. Alcoholic beverages and smoking, with their enthusiasm for them, must be eradicated.
One should learn how to quickly get out of physical, mental and emotional overload. To prevent the development of the disease will help physical activity, walking outdoors, outdoor activities.
Possible complications of
The nature of complications of the atrial extrasystole is directly dependent on the presence or absence of organic heart disease. In malignant forms of abnormal rhythm of atrial contractions, a sudden cardiac arrest is possible.
Benign forms of extrasystoles, once known, rarely stop completely during treatment. In a few days, weeks or months, signs of the disease, when exposed to provoking factors, can make themselves felt again.
Malignant forms often result in death from sudden cardiac arrest, so treatment should be aimed at preventing atrial fibrillation.
The following video is worth seeing for everyone who has extrasystole manifested in osteoarthrosis: