Urine analysis is assigned to any disease for examination, as it is a very informative diagnostic technique and can tell about the condition of many organs of the patient. Urine is evaluated by various parameters - color, transparency, the presence of impurities and other indicators. Of no small importance in diagnosis is the specific gravity of urine or its density, which, under various pathologies, may decrease or increase.
The density of urine is increased - what does it mean?
The increased relative density of urine can be detected with the traditional general analysis of urine and is caused by the amount of undissolved and dissolved substances contained in urine. The more such components will be present in the urine, the higher its relative density. If a general laboratory study revealed that the specific gravity of urine has deviations from the norm, then the patient is assigned additional diagnostic procedures.
In fact, the Zimnitsky trial is a diagnostic technique that measures the den
sity of urine collected at certain times. At the same time, an overall urinalysis can indicate the increase in urine density.
Usually the morning urine that accumulates overnight is not examined. The collection of biomaterial for research begins with the second after awakening of urination. The urine is harvested every 3 hours, the first time at 9 am, in a day, 8 portions will be obtained, each of which will be separately examined for the required parameters, in particular, the specific gravity or density. During the collection it is recommended to keep the old diet, the main thing is to record the amount of drink.
The values of
If, during the research, it was found that the density is somewhat higher than normal, that is, it rises above 1,035, then they speak of hypersthenuria. This is the name of the phenomenon in which the specific gravity of urine exceeds the norm.
Normal values according to age:
- Newborns in the first 10 days of life - 1,008-1,018;
- In 2-3 years - 1,010-1,017;
- 4-5-year-olds - 1,012-1,020;
- 10-12-year-olds - 1,011-1,025;
- In adults, the norm is the urine density in the range of 1.010-1.025.
A normal phenomenon is the fluctuation in the daily urine. The morning portion, for example, will be exceeded, because at night the patient usually does not drink anything, so the urine is not diluted. Specific density of urine in the daytime, has the lowest density and is released in the largest volumes.
There are several factors that lead to a relative increase in the specific gravity of urine. In pregnant, adult patients and children, they may differ somewhat. The causes of abnormalities are pathological or physiological. The pathological factors of high urine density are associated with certain diseases, and the physiological factors can be caused by temporary factors such as severe sweating, consumption of large amounts of fluids during the day, etc.
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Pregnant women have a traditional toxicosis against their background, which is the main cause of increased urine density. In addition, some patients have fluid retention in the body, which doctors associate with gestosis. This factor also provokes the development of hypersthenuria in pregnant women.
In a child, the increase in specific gravity is often associated with kidney diseases and changes in the tissues of the organ. In addition, children often have intestinal infections or poisonings that cause vomiting or diarrhea. These manifestations cause severe dehydration of the body and lead to a large urine density.
Hyperstenuria usually occurs against the background of factors such as:
- The presence of protein in urine or proteinuria;
- Increased glucose, characteristic of diabetics. A similar condition is also called glucosuria;
- Presence of problems with the kidneys like their insufficiency, glomerulonephritis, infectious pathologies such as cystitis or nephritis;
- Receiving a large number of drugs that are actively excreted by urine, for example, diuretics or antibiotics;
- Liquid deficiency, when a person drinks a small amount of water a day;
- Severe organic dehydration associated with excessive sweating, diarrhea, or uncontrollable vomiting.
In general, the reasons for the fact that the density of urine is above the norm is approximately the same for all segments of the population. To determine the true reasons for such violations, it is recommended to pass Zimnitsky's trial, which will allow to study in detail the kidney activity and get a more complete picture of their functionality.