Urolithiasis is a pathological condition characterized by the formation of stones( stones) in the renal pelvis / calyx. Stones can be formed of different types - urate, oxalate, phosphate. Of them, the most attention from the side of physicians is used by phosphate ones - this type of concrements is characterized by rapid growth( they increase rapidly in size).
Phosphate stones - what is it?
Phosphate stones - formations of white or gray color, which differ in porous structure, often transform into coral formations and pose a danger to human health( in some cases, life).The composition of this type of renal calculus includes calcium salts of phosphoric acid - they are fairly easy to detect with ultrasound examination of the kidneys and differentiate from other stones.
Phosphate stones have one distinctive feature - they contain absolutely all salts that are part of the urine. Often, in the study of such concretions, microlites of the urate and / or oxalate type are found.
Reasons for the formation of
If we talk about a specific cause that provokes the formation of calculi in the kidneys, then this is a violation of metabolic processes, which is accompanied by an increased content of salts in the urine, precipitation and subsequent crystallization.
But the provoking factors that lead to the formation of phosphate stones in the kidneys are many:
- excess weight( obesity), coupled with hypodynamia( sedentary lifestyle);
- inadequate intake of vitamins A and D;
- is a chronic infection of bacterial etiology, localized in the kidneys;
- long-term use of hormone drugs - for example, with contraception;
- forced immobilization of a person( immobilization), which can occur after a serious injury;
- problems in the functioning of the blood vessels of the kidneys( blood flow disturbance);
- pathology of the gastrointestinal tract, accompanied by a violation of calcium metabolism;
- pathology of the kidney and urinary system congenital / acquired character, accompanied by a violation of urinary outflow.
Many bacteria( pathogens of infectious processes) promote the disintegration of urea, resulting in the formation of ammonium and bicarbonate. This often occurs under the influence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella and Escherichia coli. The result of this development is a significant increase in the concentration of ammonium, phosphate, calcium and magnesium in urine, which precipitate and then form into crystals.
This type of renal calculus is characterized by a smooth surface. On the one hand it is good - until the phosphate stones are transformed into coral ones, there is no possibility of injuring the inner walls of the renal pelvis and calyx. On the other hand, the smooth surface of phosphate stones makes the clinical picture of urolithiasis lubricated, which makes it difficult to diagnose in time.
Dimensions of phosphate stones can not be precisely indicated, because they are characterized by rapid growth - within a few months the millimeter diameter of the calculus reaches a size of one and a half centimeters.
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The clinical picture under the condition in question is identical to that considered classic manifestation of urolithiasis:
- intermittent pulling pains in the lumbar region, in the lower abdomen with irradiation in the groin;
- urination disorder - urinary retention, incomplete emptying of the bladder, frequent urge to go to the toilet;
- slight increase in body temperature.
The patient can pay attention to the turbidity of urine, a change in its color( it becomes more dark), the presence of blood "fibers" in urine - as a rule, these signs indicate that the stone began moving along the ureter.
For the diagnosis of phosphate stones, standard procedures are used - general urine / blood analysis, biochemical blood / urine tests, ultrasound and / or radiographic studies.
The diagnosis of urolithiasis with the formation of phosphate stones is made when the following results are obtained:
- clinical analysis of urine shows a steady increase in pH level above 7.0;
- laboratory tests reveal an increased number of white blood cells in the urine - evidence of a bacterial infection;
- biochemical analysis demonstrates in the blood an increase in the concentration of phosphorus and magnesium.
The main research in the diagnosis of phosphate stones is ultrasound or radiological examination of the patient. Doctors prefer ultrasound examination, since even in this case one can see phosphate stones, determine their number and size.
This type of renal calculus is very amenable to dissolution procedures, therefore doctors diagnose the problem in question prefer therapeutic methods. Mandatory treatment of patients with antibacterial therapy - the presence of phosphate stones is almost always accompanied by the presence of an inflammatory process.
Doctors prescribe a course of antibacterial therapy - the antibiotics of the cephalosporin series perfectly remove the inflammation and stop the progression of the inflammatory process in the kidneys. At the same time, the patient should take antispasmodic medications that help to relax the smooth muscles and expand the ureters - it will be easier to leave small stones.
This is a very important point - with the help of a competently chosen diet, you can significantly improve the patient's health and ensure the release of phosphate stones from the kidneys. In principle, the diet is made according to the classical pattern, which is adopted for the treatment of all types of urolithiasis. The patient should refuse to the menu from alcohol, strong tea / coffee, spicy / salty / pickled dishes, fermented milk products. In the diet with phosphate stones in the kidneys necessarily introduced vegetables and fruits, cereals, pastries from rye flour.
Another important point: phosphate stones are highly soluble, so a patient with a similar diagnosis is often prescribed a special drinking regime in order to withdraw them. The patient should drink at least two liters of mineral water "Narzan", "Naftusya" or "Smirnovskaya", you can and should consume kvass. Diet for phosphate stones in the kidneys
Shock wave therapy
If medications and diet / drinking regimen did not work, doctors can prescribe shock wave therapy. Thanks to it, it is possible to break down phosphate stones, and by introducing antispasmodics - to speed up the removal of the remains of stones and sand from the kidneys.
Note: if a person is diagnosed with phosphate stones transformed into coral ones, then shock wave therapy is not used to dissolve them. This is due to the high risk of injuries to the tissues of the kidneys and the walls of the ureters / bladder / urethra during the release of acute fragments.
Surgical intervention to remove phosphate stones is extremely rare. Usually indications are too large sizes of phosphate stones, their coral form, severe infectious processes in the kidneys.
Modern medicine offers a minimally invasive method for the destruction of phosphate stones, which implies a minimal risk of postoperative complications.
Doctors are very cautious about recipes from the category of "traditional medicine".In any case, before starting such treatment, you should get permission from the attending physician, so as not to harm yourself.
Treatment with folk remedies implies the use of medicinal broths with phosphate stones in the kidneys, which ensure their dissolution:
- Mix in equal proportions juniper berries, herbs marinated and hernia, take 3 tablespoons of the resulting collection, pour 300 ml of boiling water and boil in a water bath for 15 minutes. Cooled broth is consumed before each meal for 3 tablespoons for a month.
- Sage leaves, herb marinated and plantain leaves are mixed in equal amounts, then 4 tablespoons of this mixture is poured with a liter of boiling water and insisted in a thermos for 10 hours. Use the drug for 1 glass an hour before meals, to improve the taste of the broth add honey.
Prevention of the formation of phosphate stones
To prevent the formation of phosphate stones can only be compliance with diet and diet, active lifestyle and timely treatment of infectious / inflammatory diseases of the urinary system.