Among all the stone formations in the kidney tissues, oxalate stones are most often formed, accounting for about 70% of cases. Independently dissolve such stones are almost incapable, so often they grow to an incredible size, which explains their danger to patients.
Oxalatite stones in the kidneys
Calcium oxalate salts form the basis of oxalate stones. Such stones are distinguished by a dark brown or black shade and an uneven surface with sharp outgrowths, which can easily damage the inner membranes of the urinary structures. Therefore, these concrements are usually treated operatively, as they often cause painful discomfort, kidney colic and dangerous complications.
Concrements of oxalate origin are typical for young patients. They are easily detected with ultrasound diagnosis.
Oxalate stone formation begins with the appearance of oxalaturia, when oxalate crystals appear in urine. The components of oxalic acid react with calcium from which oxalate crystals are formed. N
ormally, when the body is healthy, these crystals are safely excreted from the body, without catching the walls of the urinary organs. But if the patient suffers from inflammatory pathologies, or his urine is overly concentrated, then the oxalate crystals penetrate the cup system of the kidneys, where they transform into oxalate plaques and then into the calculi.
In addition, one can not exclude such reasons for education:
- Frequent psychoemotional problems;
- Pathology of the Crohn;
- Deficiency of vitamins B against a background of excessive content of ascorbic acid;
- Magnesium deficiency;
- Columns of various types;
- Various complications, provoked by advanced genitourinary pathologies;
- Pyelonephritis and pyelitis;
- Hereditary predisposition;
- Operative interventions on the gastrointestinal tract;
- Diabetes sugar.
Oxalatite stones are found in about 5% of the entire population of a predominantly young age. They are dangerous because they can injure the urinary structures, which leads to serious bleeding. Patients can determine bleeding by the characteristic impurities in urine. It is because of the bleeding that the oxalate concretes acquire such a characteristic brownish-black hue.
Usually, oxalate stones appear as formations of various shapes with spiny outgrowths. The color of the stones is black or brown. Uneven surfaces and solid structures cause deformation and damage to the internal tissues of the urogenital system, which leads to bleeding, which seriously complicates the course of the pathological process. By the color of the calculus, you can determine how often he provoked bleeding complications. If the stone did not cause any damage, then the color of the stone will be light.
Dimensions of oxalate stones can be quite small in size a few millimeters or large - more than 4 cm. The presence of adverse factors like a deficiency of fluid or pyelonephritis can provoke the degeneration of oxalate crystals into coral-like stones that fill the entire kidney. Quite often, other salts are added to the oxalate base, then the stone in the section will have a layered structure.
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Clinical picture and symptoms
Oxalatite urolithiasis has distinctive structural features, therefore the pathology is manifested by specific symptoms. It is due to the appearance of characteristic manifestations that it is possible to detect pathology in time and to start therapeutic measures.
Typical symptoms of oxalate stones are:
- Rapid urination;
- The presence in the urine of oxalate crystals;
- Bloody impurities in urine, leading to a change in its hue;
- The presence of protein components and leukocytes in urine;
- Pain sensations in the abdomen, radiating to the inguinal, lumbar region or genitals;
- Purulent impurities in the urine;
- Feeling of constant fatigue.
In children up to the age of five, oxalate stone formation is often asymptomatic. Although the occurrence of acute painful attacks caused by renal colic is not ruled out.
The simplest diagnostic technique is a general laboratory study of urine. Usually, its results are sufficient to detect urolithiasis and to determine the chemical structure of calculi.
As additional diagnostic procedures are:
- Contrast urography;
- Renal scanning;
- Ultrasound diagnosis;
- Bakpoev urines;
Such activities help to clarify the necessary features of the structure of stones, dispel some doubts about the diagnosis, etc.
Therapy of oxalate stones is complicated by a dense structure of pebbles, which is why it is not always possible to fragment them, as well as dissolution. If the concrements are large, then you can get rid of them only in an operative way. This is the answer to the question whether it is possible to independently remove the stones.
Therapy is performed in several stages:
- Medical treatment with the use of specialized drugs that remove stones and restore the real exchange processes.
- Physical activity is necessary, with regular training, the excretion of stones from the kidneys is activated, especially jumping and running are particularly useful.
- Increased drinking regimen. With the help of water, active purification of organic structures takes place, oxalate stones begin to depart. For effective withdrawal you need to drink at least 2 liters of fluid.
Complex treatment of oxalates involves the use of phytotherapeutic agents. An excellent therapeutic effect is possessed by such plants as peppermint and black elder, birch buds and leaves, violet and bearberry, nettle. The use of cucumber and pumpkin, squash juice provides a stone-crushing effect and helps to remove oxalate stones.
Drug therapy is based on an integrated approach. The positive outcome of therapy is provided by the appointment of such drugs as antimicrobial medicines, anti-inflammatory or stone-breaking and stone-removing drugs. If pathology is complicated by inflammatory lesions, it is additionally recommended to treat with sulfonamides or antibiotics.
In order to get rid of stones, medications such as Blemaren, Cyston, Phytolysin and Kanefron, magnesium preparations and Asparkam are prescribed. For analgesic effect, Baralgin or No-shpa is used. Vitamin therapy with components such as tocopherol, retinol and B-group vitamins is also recommended.
It is unacceptable to prescribe medication, obligatory medical control of treatment is necessary. Only a properly selected course of therapy will help to get rid of stones in the urinary structures efficiently and without consequences.
Surgical removal of oxalate stones can be performed by means of a classical open band surgery or endoscopically. At small sizes of stones the technique of ultrasonic crushing is applied, after that stones are deduced in the form of sand.
If during the diagnostic examination only sand and oxalate microliths were detected, then a complex treatment is designed to dissolve the stones and to remove sand from the genitourinary structures. In addition, prevention is necessary to avoid re-accumulation of calculi in the kidneys.
Proper nutrition with oxalate stones in the kidneys is also an indispensable component of stone treatment.
For oxalate kidney stones, patients are advised to take as a basis for a daily diet foods and dishes such as:
- Boiled meat of fish, poultry, dietary sausages and eggs;
- Dairy products in the form of kefir, sour cream and cottage cheese;
- Compotes and all sorts of jelly, soft coffee and tea, rosehip broth, kvass;
- Oat and buckwheat groats, pasta, millet;
- Vegetable fats, butter;
- Wheat or rye bread;
- Cabbage, bananas, pumpkins and cucumbers, eggplants or apricots, etc.
When asked which diet is indicated, it is important to say that mineral water is recommended, which will help to remove pebbles. Refuse the menu will have from offal, cheeses, spinach and sorrel, strawberries and gooseberries, salines and marinades, mushrooms and broths based on them, canned food or chocolate, sweets and sweets, strong coffee, cocoa.
Preventive measures are based on proper nutrition, the principles of which are reduced to recommendations similar to dietary therapies recommended earlier. In addition, you need to drink more fluid, avoid kidney hypothermia, add to life more physical activity. At least two times a year to conduct preventive purification courses for renal structures.
On the video about the causes, symptoms and treatment of oxalate kidney stones: