Polymyxin B is assigned to a polypeptide group of antibiotics that are produced by Bacillus polymyxa. The medicine has a bactericidal effect, the ability to destroy the cytoplasmic membrane of bacterial cells.
Composition, form of release, package
Is issued as a white powder with a yellowish tinge for solution. Antibiotic is packed into glass bottles of 25 and 50 mg each. Cardboard pack contains 5 or 10 bottles.
Polymyxin b is produced in Russia by the pharmaceutical concern Jodas Expo.
Assign in the framework of complex therapy of such pathologies:
- Sepsis, meningitis, which are provoked by sensitive bacteria;
- Bacterial skin lesions;
- Diseases of the digestive tract;
- Infections of the ears and other ENT organs;
- Diseases of the genito-urinary organs of bacterial genesis;
- Infections provoked by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is resistant to other antibacterial agents.
How is polymyxin of group M and B used?
The drug should be discarded if the following conditions are present:
- In the presence of a perforated tympanic membrane;
- Symptomatic of renal failure;
- Myasthenia gravis;
- Skin lesions.
Mechanism of action
The drug provokes damage to the integrity of the bacterial membrane. The drug is absorbed by phospholipids, which causes an increase in the permeability of the membrane, provokes cell lysis.
Instruction for use
Within the intravenous administration the following dosages are used:
- Patients over 1 year old with normal kidney function 1.5-2.5 mg / kg antibiotic. The dose should be divided into 2 doses( interval 12 hours);
- In children younger than 1 year, the daily dose rises to 4 mg / kg. Dosage is divided into 2 injections.
In the context of solution preparation for an adult patient, 50 mg of antibiotic should be dissolved in 300-500 ml of dextrose. The solution is required to be injected at a rate of 80 cap / min. For children, the dose of the drug is diluted in 30-100 ml of the solvent.
Intramuscular injections are indicated in cases where intravenous infusions are not possible. Children older than 1 year and adults are given medication 3-4 times a day, daily dose - 2.5 -3 mg / kg.
For children who have not reached the age of 1 year, a daily dose of up to 4 mg / kg is recommended divided into 4 injections at intervals of 6 hours. When preparing the solution, the drug must be dissolved in 2 ml of procaine( 1% solution).
When meningitis is indicated, intrathecal administration is indicated. All patients older than 2 years of age are prescribed 5 mg once daily for 4 days. Then the drug is administered every other day( 2 weeks).
Patients younger than 2 years of age are given 2 mg once 4 days. After this, continue the introduction of 2.5 mg of antibiotic every other day( 2 weeks).
An aqueous antibiotic solution can be used orally in the form of tablets: adults take 100 mg three times a day, children - 4 mg / kg.
Side effects of
Polymyxin B is a toxic drug capable of provoking such abnormalities:
- From the kidneys: a violation of the level of urea, creatinine, the development of acute renal necrosis, the appearance in the urine of blood, protein, cylinders;
- Nervous disorders: development of dizziness, paresthesia, muscle weakness, polyneuropathy, impaired consciousness, the appearance of hallucinations, ataxia, convulsions, neuromuscular blockade, passing into respiratory paralysis;
- Local reactions: signs of tissue damage with intramuscular injections, the appearance of pain, the emergence of phlebitis and thrombophlebitis within the framework of intravenous infusions;
- Organs of digestion: tenderness in epigastrium, nausea, decreased appetite, colitis;
- Allergy: occurrence of urticaria, pruritus, maculopapular rash, contact dermatitis, bronchospasm, collapse, hypotension, drug fever.
Exceeding the therapeutic dosage of the drug may provoke paralysis of the musculature of the respiratory organs, symptoms of toxic kidney damage, and hearing loss. Patients need symptomatic treatment.
Polymyxin B is not prescribed to pregnant women - an antibiotic can penetrate through the placenta to the fetus, causing a violation of embryonic development. If the medicine is prescribed to the mother in the treatment of infections of the eyes, ears, then the development of deafness in the fetus is possible.
When lactating, the antibiotic is used with caution, because there is no information on the ability of the drug to penetrate into the milk.
Co-administration of a polypeptide antibiotic with novocaineamide, anesthesia medications and peripheral muscle relaxants increases the risk of neuromuscular blockade.
The drug enhances the effect of tetracyclines, carbenicillin, sulfamilamides in relation to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus, Serratia.
Assignment with Ampicillin increases the effectiveness of therapy for diseases caused by gram-negative microbes. The mechanism of action of the antibiotic can reduce the concentration of heparin, enhances the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides.
Polymyxin can not be used with such medicines:
- Physiological saline;
- Amino acids.
According to reviews, Polymyxin B is an effective medicine. However, the antibiotic refers to highly toxic medicines, so it is not registered in Russia.
Price for polymyxin
The average cost is 1000 rubles.
There are such tools with a similar action:
- Newsept Forte.
The following analogues differ in low cost:
- Cefepim - 130 rubles;
- Augmentin - 260 rubles;
- Medaxone - 180 rubles.
Analogues of polymyxin
The synonymous drug is Vilimixin.
A prescription is required to buy a medicine.
Storage Conditions and Shelf Life
The medication is stored in a darkened location in which the temperature range is between 5-200 ° C.