What is myopia and how to define the disease?

1 Causes of

Disease Usually, myopia occurs in people who often work with small parts. For example, these are jewelers. In general, the disease can develop in any person at different ages, regardless of his specialization. But most often the ailment begins to develop gradually even in childhood, as a rule, in 8-13 years. This is due to the fact that the child is transferred to the school, and because of the training, his workload, including the eye, is increasing. The child has to write and read a lot, and the time for walking outdoors is greatly reduced. In addition, bad experiences are affected by stress and stress. And this is a minus, and quite significant. Often in childhood, myopia appears, but false. Gradually it will pass. In any case, an examination with a doctor is required.

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Before starting treatment, it is required to determine the causes that led to such a pathology, and then try to eliminate the influence of unfavorable factors.

Identify such reasons:

  1. Genetic predisposition. This is a rather serious factor that influences the development of pathology. In this case, the problem is that there are irregularities in the functioning of the sclera layer. And this pathology is transmitted directly from parents to children. If both parents have such a disease, then the child's risk of developing myopia increases to 86%.If such a pathology is observed only in one parent, the likelihood of its appearance in the child is significantly reduced and is about 25%.
  2. Power. If you have an improper diet and diet, then the risk of developing eye problems also increases. So it is necessary to follow your own menu. Always need to include new healthy products, because the food should be varied. This ensures the intake of a sufficient amount of all necessary minerals and vitamin compounds in the human body.
  3. Great physical exertion on the organ of vision. Do not intensively strain your eyes. They necessarily need rest. Otherwise, the body is greatly overtired. As a result, the membranes begin to dry out, and the muscles in the organ of vision gradually weaken and degrade. It is this reason that is called the main reason, so do not write too much, read and especially spend a lot of time at the computer or smartphone. It is necessary to make obligatory breaks in work. In addition, during this time, you need to perform a few simple exercises for the eyes.
  4. Poor lighting. It is not recommended to write or read with a dim light. This will greatly harm the person. In addition, do not do this during a trip in transport or in a lying position.
  5. Incorrect correction of vision. This is another rather common reason. For example, a person without consulting a doctor independently picked up his glasses, without even knowing the rules that relate to this adjustment. As a result, the choice will, of course, be wrong. As a result, the eyes quickly get tired, and the patient constantly has to strain the muscles of the organ of vision. This will lead to the fact that the disease will only develop faster.

2 Symptoms of pathology

Now conditionally distinguish 3 categories of nearsightedness. They differ in the level of progression of the disease. The categories are as follows:

  1. Weak form. The visual acuity index is no more than 3 diopters. If every day to perform special therapeutic exercises, then this will help prevent further development of pathology.
  2. Average shape. Such a variation is that the visual acuity is about 3-6 diopters.
  3. Strong shape. The patient has a visual acuity of more than 6 diopters.


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Myopia is considered a fairly common disease. Doctors identify a number of signs that point to it. The main symptom is that the patient sees well only those objects that are located close, but the objects located in the distance become blurred, so that it is no longer possible to determine their details or simply the appearance. As a result, a person has to screw up his eyes or cover his eyelids( half) a little, in order to better see. But there are other symptoms:

  • at night, visual acuity worsens even more;
  • because of the constant tension of the eyes quickly get tired;
  • all this affects the occurrence of headaches, and sometimes dizziness.

If at least one of these symptoms appears, you can not ignore this state. Be sure to go to the hospital. If it concerns the child, then it takes some time to follow his reactions and behavior. Usually, children do not associate such symptoms with the disease, so they simply ignore them. And at this time myopia only progresses. If there is such a problem with vision, then the child is simply assigned the usual methods of correction.

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Definition of myopia is carried out through special testing. If you do not act, then the disease will only progress faster. If you do not think about it, then after a while the person will simply go blind. So, prevention is mandatory. One of such measures is a regular check of visual acuity and its correction. Several methods have been developed for diagnosis. One of the most popular is testing, when work is performed with each eye separately. This test is recommended in the ophthalmologist's office.

Do not think that myopia is a plus or minus. This is a disease that must be treated urgently. Otherwise, it will only progress faster. Therapy itself implies both the presence and absence of surgical intervention.

3 Contact lenses and glasses

Both these adaptations refer to corrective vision. The first to have glasses, so that their action has been checked for centuries. The ophthalmologist will choose the type of device. In general, there are a number of restrictions on their wearing. It is always permissible to use them only if the visual acuity index exceeds 3 diopters. And before the glasses are categorically contraindicated. They can be worn only for a short period of time. But if myopia, on the contrary, is strong, then glasses simply will not help.

If glasses do not help, contact lenses are allowed.

This device touches the skin of the eye quite tightly, so it's almost invisible. But the peculiarity lies in the fact that a new system of vision is being formed. The advantage of wearing lenses is the following:

  1. Wearing is allowed for almost any measure, and this device helps even in the last stages of pathology development.
  2. Objects that fall on the retina with the use of lenses are large.
  3. Contact lenses are much more comfortable to wear.
  4. In addition to adjusting the eyesight, contact lenses have some other possibilities of the cosmetic plan. For example, you can increase the visual size of the pupil or even change the shade of the iris.

But this requires careful care of contact lenses. Otherwise, you can put the infection in the eye.

4 Surgical intervention of

Another effective way to correct vision is surgery. But such a method is considered radical and is used as a last resort. There are several types of operations:

  1. Laser correction. This method is considered the most effective, so it has become very popular. The cornea is corrected, or rather affects its shape. Laser correction itself has several varieties, so the technique will be chosen by the doctor.
  2. Replacement of the refractive type of the lens of the eye. It is used only when the patient has a severe form of myopia. The natural lens is removed when its optical capabilities no longer correspond to the norms. Instead of natural install artificial. It is called an intraocular lens. Most often this technique is used in the case when the accommodation of a natural type is lost. This is the ability of the eye to distinguish objects that are located at a fairly large distance.
  3. Implantation of the lens. Such a technique is used in the case when the natural accommodation of the eye has not yet been lost. The lens is not removed, but the lens is additionally installed. It is placed in the eye chamber - in front or behind.
  4. Radial keratotomy. During the operation, several incisions of different sizes are made on the ocular membrane. They will help to change the shape of the cornea, so that its optical performance will increase. But this method of treatment has significant drawbacks. First, the patient will recover for a long time. Secondly, there is a risk of complications. Thirdly, it will not be possible to simultaneously perform an operation on both eyes.
  5. Keratoplasty. With this technique, the shape of the cornea also changes. But in this case, a transplant is transplanted, which in advance receives a certain form.

In the early stages, special exercises are used to help restore vision or at least to stop the development of further deterioration. But they must be carried out so that the eyes do not get tired. For example, you can blink several times in a row, take your eyes to the sides, up and down, do circular movements and in the form of a figure-eight. In addition, you must try to first focus on the object, which is located next to, and then, on the contrary, on the subject, located at a great distance. And so alternate several times, taking breaks.

5 Traditional medicine

The best remedy is blueberry. Its composition includes quite a lot of manganese, which favorably affects the entire visual system. There are many recipes with this berry. For example, you can squeeze blueberries to form juice, and then strain through cheesecloth. Then add boiled water( it should be a little warm) a glass of juice requires 2 cups of water. Such a medicine is buried in the eyes in the morning. You can also drink juice. Still useful is jam.

Many people are worried about this question: is myopia and hyperopia a plus or a minus? In fact, it is a disease that needs to be treated to improve one's own vision. Gradually, vision will only get worse. Start to torment headaches and dizziness. Eyes will quickly get tired due to constant tension. If you ignore such symptoms, then gradually a person will simply go blind. If there is a risk of developing myopia, then periodically it is required to pass an examination with an oculist. In addition, many methods have been developed that will help to correct vision: from medicinal and wearing glasses to various adaptations, folk recipes and surgical intervention.

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