1 Classification and manifestations of the disease
The cerebral cortex can manifest itself in three forms: external, internal and mixed. With the external form of the disease, the cerebrospinal fluid is collected in the subarachnoid space. With internal form - in the ventricles. And with a mixed form of manifestation of hydrocephalus, fluid accumulates in all parts of the brain. In addition to the above forms of the disease, doctors allocate a moderate, which is able to flow in a latent form and not progress. But sooner or later the disease will make itself felt and there will be a violation of blood flow in the brain. Hydrocephalus of any form requires immediate therapeutic intervention and comprehensive treatment.
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The UWG can be classified by type:
- by origin( acquired or hereditary);
- by the nature of development( acute, subacute, chronic).
If you ignore the symptoms of hydrocephalus, then this can lead to a deterioration of mental activity, a violation of coordination. Therefore it is very important at the first manifestations of the disease to immediately consult a specialist. Symptoms of dropsy can be very diverse, among them we can distinguish:
- increase in blood pressure;
- coordination disorder;
- daytime drowsiness and insomnia at night;
- increased fatigue;
- accelerated heart rate;
- increased sweating;
- vision impairment;
- gait violation.
Do not forget that in the later stages of brain symptoms will only increase. Patients will suffer from memory dips and become more distracted.
No one is immune from this disease, both an adult and a child can get sick, because the reasons are different. NDT is a dangerous and rather complicated disease, so do not turn a blind eye to the symptoms and let things go by themselves. This disease must be treated with all seriousness. To understand where this disease came from and what was the reason for its development, it is necessary to understand the causes of its occurrence.
2 Causes of
The main cause of HPA is the malfunction of the central nervous system, that is, cerebrospinal fluid can be produced in large quantities and fill the intracranial box.
There are a lot of reasons leading to this disease, so we will analyze why UZG occurs in people of different ages.
At an early age, the cause of hydrocele can be an infection of the nervous system and intrauterine hypoxia. In schoolchildren and adults, dropsy can be caused due to infections of the nervous system, metabolic disorders in the body, endogenous and exogenous intoxications, trauma. In elderly people, the disease can be caused by atherosclerosis or high blood pressure.
Despite the above reasons for the dropsy, those who have had a concussion, craniocerebral trauma, tumors, or those with impaired cervical vertebrae function are at risk.
For reasons you can attribute excessive drinking and the presence of parasites in the brain.
3 Diagnostic methods
The data obtained with the help of ultrasound, allows the doctor to correctly diagnose the fetus in the womb. In newborns, the disease is much more difficult to detect, so the main indicator is the size of the skull. Only after measuring the circumference of the baby's head can you understand how quickly the skull grows.
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With any slight suspicion of GIP, you should immediately contact a specialist. Ignoring symptoms can lead to death or leave a person with a disability for life. Therefore, an early examination is already 50% of the success on the road to recovery. The process of diagnosing patients who have symptoms at the GHZ consists of computed tomography, angiography of vertebral arteries, ultrasound, lumbar puncture. Blood is also analyzed for the presence of pathogens in such diseases as rubella, syphilis, and herpes. There is also an analysis of the fundus - this survey should be performed every six months.
In the course of the examination, doctors assess the condition of the ventricles of the brain, their size, location and degree of their deformation;they also assess the measurement of the circumference of the head, the results of computed tomography, ultrasound and MRI.Only after the whole examination doctors can make an accurate diagnosis and make a program of adequate treatment.
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4 Therapeutic actions
The disease can be both permanent and progressive. With a constant form, the patient feels good, nothing disturbs him, the volume of the brain does not decrease and the amount of cerebrospinal fluid remains the same. As a rule, in this case, treatment is not prescribed and is limited to regular examinations and supervision by a doctor. But if the disease has a progressive nature, then proceed to treatment immediately. Any inaction can lead to death.
Depending on the age of the patient and the nature of the disease, several ways of treating hydrocephalus are distinguished. In order for the treatment to be effective, doctors need to eliminate the symptoms of the NZH.With a conservative method of treatment, vascular and diuretic drugs that contain potassium are most often used. Such preparations favorably influence the process of producing cerebrospinal fluid. If the drug treatment does not bring a positive effect and the puffiness remains, then doctors are forced to proceed to prompt intervention. The main task in this case is to reduce and stabilize intracranial pressure and to remove a small amount of fluid using a spinal puncture.
With the constant nature of the course of the NZH, the patient is offered general tonic therapy and saline-coniferous baths. Surgical methods of treatment are resorted if the disease has a progressive nature of the course.
Currently, the most popular method of surgical intervention is the bypass operation, which restores the circulation of the CSF.Despite the fact that this operation is very effective, it has a number of complications. After surgery, the patient will later have to undergo a surgical procedure to examine the shunt.
No less effective and common method of surgical intervention is endoscopy. Endoscopic treatment contributes to the recovery of the physiological cycle of cerebrospinal fluid, reduces the risk of complications, causes fewer injuries, is considered less costly, in contrast to shunting.
5 Prognosis and prophylaxis of pathology
If UZD is diagnosed at an early stage and the treatment was completed in a timely manner, then the chance to return to normal life is greater. As a rule, with early diagnosis of the disease and timely treatment, patients become on the path of full recovery. In some cases, one can observe a disturbance in the function of speech.
If you follow the work of the vascular system and conduct timely treatment of infectious diseases, then you can prevent external replacement water drop. Lead a healthy lifestyle, give up alcohol, foods that adversely affect the blood vessels, move more. This will all reduce the risk of the appearance of the NZH.
For preventive maintenance, avoid injuries, diseases affecting the central nervous system. Pass a regular examination with specialists. Avoid diseases of an infectious nature, especially during pregnancy, as this can negatively affect a baby's health.