The cervix is a narrow lower region of the uterus that connects the uterus and the vagina. It is between the bladder and rectum.
Cervical biopsy is a procedure during which a particle is taken from the surface of a specified organ for histological examination. Assign it for accurate diagnosis in the detection of pathological tissue sites.
A biopsy is performed with cervical erosion, leukoplakia, endocervicitis, condylomata and other diseases.
What is a cervical biopsy?
Why is a cervical biopsy, and what is it? This medical procedure is carried out in those cases when the doctor has a suspicion of any pathology. In some diseases, it is impossible to make a diagnosis based on the results of a gynecological examination, the study of smears.
The essence of the procedure is quite simple: a part of the cells are extracted from the cervix and sent to a histological laboratory. The tissue is taken from that part of the neck, the condition of which causes the greatest fear of the doctors.
In the laboratory, morphological analysis is performed, and atypical cells are identified. If there are such, make a conclusion - what they are, what shape, size, for which pathological process are characteristic.
Why do this procedure?
Depending on each specific case, a cervical biopsy is taken for:
- to clarify the delivered or presumptive diagnosis.
- exclusion or detection of cancer or precancerous processes of the cervix.
A biopsy is also necessary if it is necessary to confirm or deny the presence of such diseases as:
- papilloma virus;
- mucosal condylomas caused by oncogenic viruses;
- malignant neoplasm.
The main task of the procedure is early diagnosis of cervical cancer - a common and dangerous disease.
Varieties of this study
From the state of the cervix and the results of colposcopy depends on the biopsy, where they can take a small piece of tissue or remove the area where an anomaly was found.
The following types of biopsies are distinguished:
- Endocervical .With the help of a special tool - curettes from the cervical canal are scraped away by mucus.
- The codification of .Using a scalpel or laser, a cone-shaped tissue fragment is removed from the cervix.
- Trepanobiopsia .Material for research - small pieces of epithelium are taken from several sections of the cervix.
Different types of biopsies are applied depending on the vastness of the study, the need for complete removal of the affected area for the purpose of cure.
How is cervical biopsy performed, and is it painful?
There are no nerve endings in the cervix, so taking a biopsy does not hurt, as often women expect. A biopsy is performed under local anesthesia, but sometimes doctors use general anesthesia. The procedure lasts an average of 15-20 minutes.
A woman lies down on an ordinary gynecological chair and she is injected into the vagina with a mirror. After a thorough examination and colposcopy, a biopsy is done. Depending on the method of biopsy, a tool is selected that is inserted into the vagina and the affected area of the mucous membrane of the cervix is removed.
After the operation, a woman is given an anesthetic.at the end of the anesthesia, pain in the abdomen is possible. This ends everything, and the patient can go home.
Before the procedure, a woman undergoes specified studies:
- Smears from the vagina to determine the level of inflammation.
- For two days not douche and do not use tampons.
- Bacteriological and PCR study of the smear from the cervical canal.
- Do not have sexual intercourse 2 days before the test.
- For 12 hours you need to stop drinking and eating, since anesthesia will be performed.
- Blood for structural antigens of viral hepatitis, immunoglobulins to HIV.
The procedure is scheduled for 5-6 days after the onset of menstruation. Just in this period, the cells have already been sufficiently refreshed after menstruation;in addition, there is time for complete healing of the tissue defect.
Contraindications to biopsy of the cervix
If during the examination you will have inflammatory diseases of the vagina or cervix, the biopsy will have to be postponed until the inflammation passes. Your gynecologist can prescribe additional tests to clarify the cause of the inflammation, or can prescribe the treatment immediately if the cause of the inflammation is clear.
Cervical biopsy can not be done during menstruation. If you suspect that you are pregnant, then be sure to tell your doctor.
On which day of the cycle can a biopsy be done?
All gynecological manipulations are usually performed after the termination of menstruation on the 5-13 day of the cycle, so that the damaged surface can be tightened before the next cycle. As a rule, tissue regeneration is required from 10 days to two weeks.
It is strictly forbidden to carry out these manipulations in the second half of the cycle, because this can cause problems during the recovery period.
Cervical biopsy with erosion
Procedure is performed in order to exclude the presence of neoplasms or other pathological processes. Treatment of erosion in most cases is not prescribed, especially to nulliparous women, but it requires constant monitoring and control.
At least once every six months, it makes sense to perform visual, colposcopic examination and biopsy. This will help to determine whether erosion in size is increasing, whether there is a risk of malignant degeneration, to reveal a precancerous condition.
After biopsy of
In order to avoid complications after biopsy, it is recommended that the following rules be observed in the next month:
- do not use tampons in the vagina and do not syringe.
- not have sex for at least 2 weeks or more.
- do not take a bath, just use a shower.
- do not lift weights( no more than 3 kg).
- do not visit saunas, baths and swimming pools.
Usually, cervical biopsy does not entail negative health effects. However, after a biopsy, you need to be prepared that there may be bloody discharge, which you need to monitor.
Usually the only consequence is bleeding from the cervical vessels, which are richly supplied with the cervix. In some cases( in case of non-observance of personal hygiene rules, recommendations after surgery) infection of the site is possible.