One of the most important components of the immune system is lymphocytes, they are a separate group of leukocytes. Produces their bone marrow. The main task of lymphocytes is the recognition of foreign antigens, followed by the formation of an immune response.
Not by chance, lymphocytes are called the "army" of our immunity. As in any army are different groups of troops, and lymphocytes are different. Among them are T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, NK-lymphocytes, so-called "natural killers".Any of these types of lymphocytes play an important role in providing immune protection.
Lymphocytes are considered elevated if the peripheral blood of an adult contains above 18-40%( 1.0-4.5 × 109 / L).What this means, and what reasons lead to such indicators, we will try to understand.
Normative values of the
The following indicators are considered normal( in 109 / l):
- For children from birth to year - 4 -10,5;
- For children from one year to four years - 2 - 7,8;
- For children from four to six years old - 1.5 -7;
- For children from six to ten years old - 1.6-6.4;
- For adolescents and young people under the age of 21, 1- 4,7;
- For an adult person - 1 - 4.5.
At the same time, the parameters in the norm of the relative number of lymphocytes look as follows:
- One year - 61%;
- Four years - 50%;
- Six years - 42%;
- Ten years - 38%;
- Twenty-one years - 34%;
- For an adult, 34%.
If, as a result of a laboratory test, lymphocytes are detected above normal, this indicates that there may be a malfunction in the body. This condition is called lymphocytosis.
Why the lymphocytes in the blood are grown in an adult
What does this mean? The causes of increased lymphocytes in the blood of women and men may be different, but there are several types of diseases that most often lead to this phenomenon :
- infectious diseases;
- bacterial infections;
- autoimmune diseases;
- possible acute allergy, as well as anaphylactic shock;
- appearance and growth of malignant and benign tumors and neoplasms;
- especially expressed lymphocytosis will be in the analyzes for diseases that can be hurt once( measles, rubella, chickenpox, mononucleosis, etc.);
- autoimmune processes.
To determine the cause of an increase in lymphocytes in the blood of an adult and to choose the right technique, it is necessary to determine the number of forms. In this regard, lymphocytosis, depending on the form of its manifestation, is of two kinds:
- Relative lymphocytosis - the specific weight of leukocytes in the structure of the leukocyte formula varies: without changing the absolute value in the blood, they "displace" other cells, for example neutrophils.
- Absolute lymphocytosis - the total number of immune guardians of the body increases dramatically as a response to disease or pathology. .
To provoke an increase in lymphocytes in an adult with relative lymphocytosis can:
- Acute viral infections.
- Diseases of rheumatic origin.
- Enhance thyroid function.
The most common increase in lymphocytes in adults with absolute lymphocytosis is provoked by:
- Bronchial asthma.
- Radiation sickness. Pertussis and tuberculosis.
- After removal of the spleen.
- Lymphatic leukemia of chronic form.
In addition to various infectious and inflammatory diseases capable of provoking an increase in lymphocytes in the blood, there are a number of external factors that can cause lymphocytosis:
- Postponed surgical intervention - in the post-operation period, there is always an increase in the number of lymphocytes.
- Neurasthenia, taking certain medications - usually the level of lymphocytes comes back to normal shortly after the cause of its occurrence has been eliminated.
- Fasting, malnutrition - these factors can provoke the weakening of the body's immune system.
In addition, it should be said that in themselves, elevated blood lymphocytes do not yet play the role of any serious laboratory test. This is especially true when their cause is associated with inflammatory or infectious pathology. In addition, even if the level of lymphocytes has decreased during treatment, it also can not be said that recovery has come.
In addition, elevated lymphocytes in the study of blood can constitute a serious diagnostic sign, provided that there are significant changes in general in the leukocyte formula. In general, it is very difficult to find the real cause of elevated lymphocytes. And here we need, including instrumental methods of diagnosis, and not just laboratory ones.
Lymphocytes are higher than normal in children
In children 4-5 days and 4-5 years of life in the blood there is a physiological lymphocytosis that does not require treatment. The condition of the child remains perfectly normal, the lymph nodes do not increase. This situation is due to the restructuring of the hematopoietic system of the child.
However, an increased amount of lymphocytes in children may be caused by:
- Bronchial asthma;
- Infection: influenza, SARS, sore throat and others;
- Pyoinflammatory processes;
- Viral illness: lichen, whooping cough, malaria, chickenpox( chicken pox), measles, viral hepatitis and others.
Elevated lymphocytes can also occur with other diseases, with different individual characteristics of the body. The exact causes can only be determined after a complete examination.
What to do when in the blood test high lymphocytes
If lymphocytes are increased, what should I do in this case? The answer can be only one: to identify and eliminate the cause of this state. When lymphocytes are elevated, treatment should be directed not at reducing their level, but on the disease itself.
Depending on the disease, the therapy takes from several days to several months and usually helps stabilize the level of lymphocytes. For example, in most infectious processes, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiviral drugs, as well as antibiotics are prescribed. The course of treatment of myeloma and leukemia is very peculiar and often requires chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation.