Such diagnostic method of research as radiography is used in medicine quite a long time ago. Today, due to improved equipment quality, image acquisition speed, and the lack of image development process, this diagnostic method has become effective, accurate and relatively safe.
Concept and types
The method is named after its inventor( Wilhelm Roentgen) and the Greek.gráphō - food. It refers to non-invasive medical research, and is based on the projection of X-rays onto paper or a special film.
Rays, passing through the anatomical structures of the body, give an image in the form of light shadows, weakened in those places where the structure of the organ is more dense.
In modern devices( digital), the recorded image can be recorded on a cassette with a special film or on an electronic device matrix. Subsequently, the film can be printed, or the image is saved in the database and displayed on the monitor if necessary.
When X-ray examination of the gastrointestinal tract as a contrast agent, a water suspension of barium is used. The solution is drunk by the patient or, in some situations, is injected through the probe.
Barium is almost insoluble in water and physiological fluids, but has the ability to absorb X-rays, which allows one to judge the relief of the mucosa
. While the barium mass moves along the digestive organs, its progress is monitored by translucence. In this case, the radiologist studies the function of the esophagus, stomach, intestines and reveals the presence of tumors, obstruction or damage.
Review radiography allows you to judge the condition of organs adjacent to the esophagus, stomach, and other organs of the digestive tract.
The organs of the abdominal cavity are less dense, so the shadow is less pronounced in the picture than in the bones. But a survey study allows you to see the presence of foreign objects or the change of an organ due to trauma or illness.
This examination is prescribed in a complex of other studies to clarify the diagnosis. It takes a few minutes and is quite affordable.
Diseases that require such diagnostics:
- intestinal obstruction;
- intestinal tumors;
- soft tissue damage;
This method is used when the patient complains of:
- pain, discomfort in the abdomen;
- severity in the area of the digestive system.
There are practically no contraindications to the study. The disadvantages of this method include:
- the effect of ionizing radiation on the patient;
- difficult assessment of organ functions;
In the study of soft tissues, little distinguishable in density, there is insufficient information without the use of contrast agents.
Conducting a survey requires the absence of gases and food, fluid, mucus in hollow organs.
Before the procedure, the following preparations are carried out:
- In the study of the liver and gallbladder, radiopaque preparations( Yopagnost, Choloid) are used, which accumulate in the gall bladder and liver. To study the contractility of the gallbladder, cholagogue can be used.
- On the eve of the study of the duodenum and stomach with constipation and pronounced flatulence make a cleansing enema and drink 30 g of castor oil.
- On the day of the procedure, with a strong flatulence, they also put a cleansing enema 2 hours before fluoroscopy. And also with a large amount of mucus, liquid, food residues in the stomach 3 hours before the test is carried out washing.
Research is better spent on an empty stomach, eating a light dinner on the eve. Patients with normal bowel function do not need special training in the form of enemas and diets.
How does the x-ray of the abdominal cavity?
It is advisable to carry out the diagnostic study in different projections, since the image is a flat image of a three-dimensional organ, and all walls need to be looked at. Therefore, the study is conducted at different positions of the body.
During the procedure using barium, with the horizontal position of the patient, the movement of the contrast mass slows down, which makes it possible to fill it with a hollow organ and take the necessary pictures:
- after 1 hour - the contrast mass reaches the small intestine;
- 3 hours - accumulates in the transition between the small intestine and thick;
- 6 hours - reaches the initial departments of the colon;
- 9 - colon and transverse colon;
- 12 - sigmoid colon;
- 24 - the large intestine.
This method allows you to see tumors, polyps, as well as changes in the wall, diagnose diverticulosis. The following pathologies are also revealed during the examination:
- cysts, hematomas, sometimes stones in the bile ducts;
- tears or bruises of organs;
- presence of gas or liquid in the abdominal cavity;
- adhesions, narrowing of the intestine.
Study allows you to see the anatomically incorrect position of the organ relative to others.
The procedure for radiography is relatively inexpensive and varies depending on the type of study:
- review radiography - from 350 rubles;
- radiography of the stomach - from 750 rubles;
- radiography with barium of the large intestine - from 600 rubles;
- of the small intestine - from 950 rub.;
- study of the esophagus - from 500 rubles;
- cholangiopancreatography( examination of the liver and bile ducts) - from 1500 rubles;
- Irrigoscopy - from 1000 rubles.