Dyspepsia is a cumulative syndrome. It combines a number of dysfunctions of the digestive system, in which there is poor digestibility of nutrients, difficult digestibility of food, as well as the presence of intoxication of the body.
In the presence of dyspepsia, the general condition of a person worsens, there is a painful symptomatology in the abdomen and chest. Dysbacteriosis is also possible.
syndrome The onset of dyspepsia is unpredictable in many cases. This disorder can appear for a number of reasons, which, at first glance, seem rather harmless.
Dyspepsia occurs with the same frequency in men and women. It is also observed in children, but less often.
To the main factors that cause the development of dyspepsia, include:
- A number of diseases of the digestive tract - ulcer, gastritis, stomach and duodenal cancer;
- Stress and psychoemotional instability - provokes the undermining of the body, also stretching of the stomach and intestines due to swallowing large portions of air;
- Improper nutrition - leads to difficulties in digestion and assimilation of food, provokes the development of a number of gastrointestinal ailments;
- Violation of enzyme activity - leads to uncontrolled release of toxins and poisoning of the body;
- Uniform food - damages the entire digestive system, provoking the appearance of fermentation and putrefaction processes;
- Hyper secretion is an inflammatory process in the stomach, accompanied by increased release of hydrochloric acid;
- Some medications - antibiotics, special hormonal drugs, drugs against tuberculosis and cancer;
- Allergic reaction and intolerance is a special sensitivity of human immunity to certain products;
- Intestinal obstruction - partial or complete blocking of the permeability of the contents of the stomach through the intestine.
- Group A hepatitis is a liver disease that is infectious in nature, characterized by nausea, dysfunction of digestion, and yellow skin.
Disease code according to ICD-10
According to the international classification of diseases, dyspepsia has code K 30. This disorder was designated as a separate disease in 1999.So, the prevalence of this disease varies from 20 to 25% for all the world's population.
Dyspepsia has a fairly extensive classification. Each subspecies of the disease has its own special features and specific symptoms. Relying on them, the doctor conducts the necessary diagnostic measures and prescribes treatment.
Attempts to eliminate dyspepsia often do not lead to positive results. Thus, if suspicious symptoms are detected, it is necessary to contact the clinic.
It is very common for a doctor to perform a series of tests to determine the exact cause of the disease and to prescribe adequate measures to eliminate disturbing symptoms.
In medicine, there are two main groups of disorders of the dyspeptic type - functional dyspepsia and organic. Each type of disorder is caused by certain factors that must be taken into account, determined by the approach to treatment.
Functional dyspepsia is a type of disorder that does not fix specific organic damage( there are no injuries to internal organs, systems).
In this case, functional disorders are observed that do not allow the GI system to function fully.
Fermentation type of dyspepsia occurs when a person's diet consists primarily of products containing a large amount of carbohydrates. Such products include bread, legumes, fruit, cabbage, kvass, beer.
As a result of frequent use of these products, fermentation reactions develop in the intestine.
This leads to the appearance of unpleasant symptoms, namely:
- increased gas production;
- rumbling in the abdomen;
With the delivery of feces for analysis, it is possible to detect excessive amounts of starch, acids, as well as fiber and bacteria. All this contributes to the emergence of the fermentation process, which so negatively affects the patient's condition.
This type of disorder occurs when a person is overcrowded with protein food.
Fat dyspepsia is typical for those people who abuse eating high-fat fats very often. They are mainly referred to as mutton and pork fat.
In this case, a person has a severe disorder of the stool. Feces often have a light color and a sharp unpleasant odor. A similar failure in the body occurs due to the accumulation of animal fat in the body and because of their slow digestibility.
An organic form of dyspepsia appears due to organic pathology. The absence of treatment leads to structural damage to the internal organs.
Symptoms of organic dyspepsia are more aggressive and more pronounced. Treatment is carried out in a complex way, as the ailment for a long time does not recede.
This condition is typical of people who are most strongly affected by stress, depression, psychopathy and have a certain genetic tendency to all this. The final mechanism for the appearance of this state is still not defined.
Toxic dyspepsia occurs with an inappropriate diet. So, this condition can cause not enough high-quality and useful products, as well as bad habits.
Negative effect on the body is due to the fact that protein decays of food and toxic substances negatively affect the walls of the stomach and intestines.
Further influences interoceptors. Already with blood, toxins reach the liver, gradually destroying its structure and disrupting the functioning of the body.
Symptoms of dyspepsia can vary greatly. It all depends on the individual characteristics of the patient's body, as well as on the causes that caused the disease.
In some cases, the symptoms of the disease may be sluggish, which will be due to the high resistance of the body. However, most often dyspepsia manifests itself sharply and is expressed.
So, for alimentary dyspepsia, which has a functional form, the following symptoms are characteristic:
- severity in the stomach;
- stomach discomfort;
- sensation of overcrowding in the stomach;
- loss of appetite( lack of appetite, which alternates with hungry pains);
- pain in the upper parts of the stomach.
Ulcer type of dyspepsia is accompanied by:
- headaches;The hunger pains
- abdominal pain.
The diskinetic type of dyspepsia is accompanied by:
- feeling of fullness of the stomach;
- permanent discomfort in the abdomen.
Nonspecific type is accompanied by a whole complex of symptoms, which are typical for all types of dyspepsia, namely:
- abdominal pain;
- is an intestinal disorder;
- hungry pain;
- lack of appetite;
- fast fatigue.
Dyspepsia in pregnant women is a fairly common phenomenon that often manifests itself in the last months of pregnancy.
This condition is associated with the transfer of acidic contents into the esophagus, which causes a number of unpleasant sensations.
Lack of measures to eliminate painful symptoms leads to the fact that the constantly thrown acidic content causes an inflammatory process on the walls of the esophagus. There is damage to the mucous membrane and, as a result, a malfunctioning of the body.
For the elimination of unpleasant symptoms, antacids can be prescribed to pregnant women. This will help suppress heartburn and pain in the esophagus. Dietary nutrition and lifestyle adjustments are also shown.
Diagnostics is one of the main and main stages that allow to achieve rational and qualitative treatment. To begin with, the doctor is obliged to carry out a careful collection of anamnesis, which involves a number of clarifying questions concerning the lifestyle of the patient and his genetics.
Mandatory palpation, tapping and listening. After this, as necessary, the following studies of the stomach and intestines are carried out.
|Diagnostic method||Diagnostic significance of the|
|method Clinical blood sampling||A method for diagnosing the presence or absence of anemia. It allows to determine the presence of a number of gastrointestinal diseases.|
|Stool analysis||A method for diagnosing the presence or absence of anemia. It allows to determine the presence of a number of gastrointestinal diseases. Also allows to detect hidden intestinal bleeding.|
|Biochemistry of blood||Allows to evaluate the functional state of some internal organs - liver, kidneys. Eliminates a number of disorders in the metabolism.|
|Respiratory test with urea, immunosorbent assay for the determination of specific antibodies, fecal antigen test.||Direct diagnosis for the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection in the body.|
|Endoscopic examination of organs.||Allows to detect a number of diseases of the digestive tract. Diagnoses diseases of the stomach, intestines, duodenum. Also, this analysis allows indirectly to determine the process of bowel evacuation.|
|X-ray contrast study.||Diagnosis of digestive disorders.|
|US||Assessment of the state of organs, the process of their functioning.|
This need may arise only if, in addition to dyspepsia, the patient is suspected of having another, concomitantly developing disease.
Treatment of a patient for dyspepsia is based strictly on the results of the tests. It involves medication and non-drug treatment.
Non-pharmacological treatment involves a number of measures that must be followed to improve the overall condition.
These include the following:
- adhere to a rational and balanced diet;
- eliminate overeating;
- choose for themselves not tight clothes that fit in size;
- to give up exercises for abdominal muscles;
- eliminate stressful situations;
- competently combine work and leisure;
- walk after meals for at least 30 minutes.
It is necessary to observe the doctor throughout the treatment period. In the absence of treatment results, it is necessary to undergo additional diagnostics.
Treatment with medications for dyspepsia is as follows:
- Laxatives are used to eliminate constipation that may occur during an illness. Self-administration of any drugs is prohibited, they are prescribed only by the attending doctor. Medications are used until the chair is normalized.
- Antidiarrheal drugs are used to achieve a firming effect. It is necessary to resort to them only on the recommendation of a doctor.
In addition, the reception of such drugs is shown:
- analgesics and antispasmodics - reduce pain syndrome, have a soothing effect.
- enzyme preparations - contribute to the improvement of the digestive process.
- blockers - reduce the acidity of the stomach, contribute to the elimination of heartburn and eructations.
- H2-histamin blockers are weaker drugs than hydrogen pump blockers, but they also have the necessary effect when fighting the symptoms of heartburn.
In the presence of neurotic dyspepsia, counseling of the therapist is not a problem. He, in turn, will appoint a list of necessary drugs that will help monitor the psychoemotional state.
Diet for stomach and intestinal dyspepsia
The correct diet for dyspepsia is appointed, taking into account the initial nature of the patient's disorders. Thus, food should be based on such rules:
- Fermentation dyspepsia involves the exclusion of carbohydrates from the diet and the predominance of proteins in it.
- For fatty dyspepsia, fats of animal origin should be excluded. The main emphasis should be on plant food.
- For alimentary dyspepsia, the diet should be adjusted in such a way that it fully meets the needs of the body.
- The putrefactive form of dyspepsia involves the exclusion of meat and meat-containing products. In preference, vegetable food.
Also in the preparation of a therapeutic diet, the following should be considered:
- The food should be fractional;
- Meals should be taken slowly and slowly;
- Food should be steamed or baked;
- Should be discarded from raw and soda water;
- In the diet must be present liquid dishes - soups, broths.
You should also give up harmful habits - alcohol and cigarette smoking. Neglect of such recommendations can contribute to the return of the disease.
In the treatment of dyspepsia, folk methods are often used. Mainly used herbal teas and herbal teas.
As for other products, such as soda or alcohol tinctures, it is better to refuse them. Their use is extremely irrational and can lead to an exacerbation of the condition.
Successful elimination of dyspepsia is possible if you adhere to a healthy lifestyle and adjust your diet. Use of additional treatment in the form of the use of folk remedies - not needed.
Complications of dyspepsia are extremely rare. They are possible only if the disease is severely exacerbated. Among them may be observed:
- weight loss;
- loss of appetite;
- rupture of esophageal mucosa;
- exacerbation of gastrointestinal diseases.
To exclude the development of dyspepsia, it is necessary to adhere to such rules:
- correction of nutrition;
- exclusion of harmful products;
- moderate physical activity;
- plentiful drink;
- hygiene compliance;
- refusal of alcohol.
With a tendency to dyspepsia and other gastrointestinal diseases, it is necessary to visit the gastroenterologist once a year. This will detect the disease in the early stages.
Video about dyspepsia of the digestive tract: