It often happens that in the abdomen of a person acute sensations of cramping character begin, frequent desires for defecation, liquid, often watery stools and general weakness. The first thought that arises in this situation is, as a rule, that he "ate something unsuitable."Yes, such deterioration of well-being is often provoked by stale, poorly washed or improperly quality products. But for the most part, these symptoms indicate that the body begins to develop diarrhea, or, in the common people, a common diarrhea.
Many ignore unpleasant symptoms and do not go to the doctor, believing that the syndrome of an upset stomach that flows in the form of diarrhea will safely pass by itself, it is only necessary to drink a solution of potassium permanganate and activated charcoal. But this, unfortunately, is not entirely true. The disease of diarrhea for both the adult and the child is not harmless. The degree of severity of this disease, the duration and nature of the accompanying diarrhea, as well as the overall well-being of the patient directly depend on the cause that caused it.
Diarrhea mechanism and diarrhea peculiarities
In adults with no health problems, usually 300 g of feces are released daily. Their volume and consistency directly depend on the amount of fiber contained in the food and the remaining water, not digested by the body. In the event of a disturbance in the functioning of the digestive organs, the suction process deteriorates, and the liquid remaining in the intestine is discharged outside during the stool. So there is diarrhea, which, with significant disturbances in the work of the stomach and intestines, contains a very large amount of moisture and becomes watery because of this.
When it lasts about 3 weeks, you can talk about the acute form of the disease, and if diarrhea occurs with a copious discharge of watery stools, and lasts longer than 21 days, it is already a chronic form. At the first manifestations of diarrhea it is recommended not to postpone a visit to the doctor in the hope that everything will pass by itself, but immediately to make the necessary studies, which will clarify the cause of the emergence of the liquid stool and its pathophysiological mechanism. It usually happens in two forms:
- A disturbance in the absorption of nutrients and micronutrients from food. With this form of pathophysiologic mechanism of diarrhea, patients have polyphecal( persistent increase in fecal masses).It is explained by the large volume of undigested microelements left in the digestive organs;
- In case of development of this disease due to violations of the motor function of the intestine calorie discharge in the form of a liquid stool will occur from 5 to 15 times a day, but at the same time the total amount of feces will not exceed the usual 300 g. Diarrhea with this form of the disease will be meager, but frequent. Also with it, incontinence can also develop.
Both these forms are accompanied by strong enough painful sensations in a stomach. The earlier the feces were taken and the necessary observations of the patient's condition were made, the more accurately the diagnosis and the most effective treatment for developing diarrhea would be prescribed.
The causes of diarrhea in adults
Factors that can provoke indigestion, there are many, from intolerance to certain foods, and ending with various infectious diseases. But, despite the fact that it caused the development of diarrhea, it requires immediate treatment, since in the absence of it, the work of most organs in the human body will be disrupted. In order to understand how to get rid of diarrhea, which was caused by a stomach disorder, you should study the causes of it:
- Most often, the provoking factor for the onset of pain in the abdomen, accompanied by a loose stool in an adult, are individual characteristics of the body, such as allergies to certain foods or intolerance to some of them. The intestinal symptom presented by diarrhea, unlike rapidly developing cutaneous or respiratory symptoms, appears several hours or even days after the patient ate something unsuitable. It is very difficult to establish, because the relationship between diarrhea and eaten 2 days ago is usually not traced;
- Traveler's disease. This is called diarrhea, which evolved as a reaction to the change of water and new food. In this case, such a syndrome as a loose stool, manifests itself within a week after the habitual situation was changed. Most often diarrhea occurs when children or adults get into unfamiliar conditions for their organisms when changing the climate zone. The cause of diarrhea and pain syndrome in the abdomen are other climatic conditions, inappropriate composition of drinking water and unusual local cuisine. All these factors, especially when they act in combination, disrupt the functioning of the intestine and cause diarrhea in the patient;
- Disorders of the stomach and loose stool end on their own after the person returns home and regains their normal diet. But in the event that diarrhea that occurs during travel, flows with an admixture in the stools of bloody inclusions and an increase in temperature to 38 ° C, an urgent appeal to a specialist is needed, as this may indicate a developing infectious disease or food poisoning;
- Another frequent factor for the appearance of watery diarrhea may be excessive drinking. This is due to the fact that all alcohol-containing drinks stimulate the intestinal receptors, forcing them to work in an accelerated mode. The manifestations of stomach upset for this reason are similar to food poisoning, both in the duration of the developed diarrhea and in the time of its development.
In addition, the beginning of a disease such as diarrhea, may serve as psychoemotional factors. The liquid stool in this case is caused by stress or nervous overexertion. Failure in the work of the digestive organs in such a development of the disease is facilitated by the fact that their activity is regulated by the nervous system. Therefore, in those cases when it begins to experience excessive loads, a failure in their work, expressed by discomfort in the abdomen and diarrhea, is inevitable. An upset stomach, accompanied by a loose stool, with this form of the disease also does not require special treatment. It will disappear on its own after the psychotraumatic event that caused it is completed.
Symptoms associated with diarrhea in an adult
Very rarely diarrhea develops without additional symptoms. All the attendant factors are extremely important, because it is easiest to determine the immediate cause that caused the disease diarrhea. The most common syndrome, accompanying diarrhea, will be nausea, resulting in profuse vomiting. This phenomenon is explained quite simply: in the case when the motor function of the intestine is broken, its contents will be thrown back into the stomach, thereby causing the disorder of the main digestive organ. This symptom, which occurs with diarrhea, can provoke and intoxication of the body. It appears due to the fact that during the diarrhea, various harmful substances are absorbed into the bloodstream, which then spread to all organs.
The next syndrome that accompanies diarrhea will be pain in the abdomen. They are typical for all types of this disease, but for the most part indicates that the pathogenic flora has penetrated into the digestive organs and intoxication develops. First, the pain that occurs during this disease has a periodic paroxysmal character. After it calms down, a loose stool begins to form. An eructation is also a sign accompanying diarrhea. Its appearance indicates that the body has begun to exacerbate any disease of the digestive organs.
The appearance of diarrhea in an adult can in many cases be accompanied by a rise in temperature. Usually, its rise is insignificant, but there are situations when it reaches a boundary value of 39-40 ° C.This always indicates that the bacterial or viral pathogenic flora has been introduced into the digestive organs.
What is the risk of diarrhea?
The liquid stool, which has a short course, has almost no effect on the general condition of the patient and does not require special treatment. But in the case when he takes a severe chronic course, the body can undergo pronounced changes, hypovitaminosis and severe exhaustion. In order to establish the cause that caused this disease, a special study is needed. The representation of those who consider developing diarrhea as a primary disease is a mistake. Diarrhea is just a sign of another illness. To detect it, a special diagnosis is required, with which the specialist can recognize the pathology developing in the body and prescribe the appropriate therapy to the patient.
The biggest danger for an adult from long-lasting diarrhea is possible dehydration of the body, since it affects many important functions of muscle activity. Watery diarrhea leads to loss of electrolytes by the body, which is very dangerous for people who have weakened the immune system. Measures to prevent dehydration that occurs with prolonged diarrhea should be taken very quickly, so that you can avoid serious health problems( shock, organ damage or coma).In adults, the following signs of dehydration usually occur with diarrhea:
- Constant fatigue and dizziness;
- Overdryed scaly skin;
- Rare urge to urinate, in which urine is excreted in dark color;
- Permanent thirst.
In addition to this, when a person is dehydrated from a prolonged leaking diarrhea, this can be seen on the skin, unable to straighten immediately after the pinch. If these symptoms manifested, an urgent call for a doctor is necessary. In the event that the disease takes on a strong character, hospitalization of the patient is required. With dehydration syndrome, the amount of water drunk does not play any role for the sick person, since it does not contain electrolytes. Patients to compensate for their loss, caused by diarrhea, should drink compotes and fruit juices.
Therapeutic measures necessary for diarrhea
A long-lasting illness indicates the development of a serious complication, the treatment of which can be carried out only by an expert. The uncontrolled use of medications that, in the opinion of many, stop diarrhea, is categorically contraindicated, since an already serious situation in the gastrointestinal tract caused by prolonged diarrhea can significantly worsen. In practice, the development of the disease can be stopped only if stage-by-stage therapy is used.
First and foremost, rehydration should be done to compensate for the electrolytes and liquid lost by the body during diarrhea, and also to correct the acid-base balance. This is the most important stage in the therapy of any diarrhea, since when the body loses fluid due to prolonged diarrhea, it leads to the development of intoxication syndrome and complication of intoxication, especially when the disease is accompanied by vomiting. For rehydration, you can use both ready-made powders sold in the pharmacy, and prepare the solution yourself, dissolving 20 liters of sugar and 5 g of table salt in a liter of boiled water.
The next step in the therapy of this disease is the intake of adsorbents. These are medicinal substances that, due to their ability to absorb and excrete enterotoxins in the lumen of the intestine, stop diarrhea. The most famous and safe drug among them is activated charcoal. It has an easy fixing effect. When Smecta is taken, which also refers to adsorptive drugs, the "lifespan" of beneficial bacteria increases.
Further, after the diarrhea is stopped and the pain syndrome in the abdomen is removed, astringents and enveloping agents that continue the action of adsorbents are needed. Well-established and used to solve this problem are traditional medicine recipes, which use cones of alder, pomegranate and oak bark. They help to get rid of diarrhea, even if it lasts more than a week.
Diet required for stomach upset
When a patient has a loose stool, he should avoid any foods that are poorly digested or abound with vegetable fiber. To the use for the speedy removal of the symptoms of the disease and not allow their re-emergence, the following food is recommended:
- Fruits and vegetables in baked form. Only after culinary heat treatment they lose the ability to provoke diarrhea;
- Grains such as rice, oatmeal and buckwheat, which have good astringent and enveloping properties;
- Meat and fish meats;
- Low-fat cottage cheese;Ice-cream or crackers.
Of drinks during the syndromes of an upset stomach is best suited brewed tea and decoctions of St. John's wort and dog rose.
Preventive measures for the occurrence of such an unpleasant and for the most part a dangerous symptom, such as diarrhea, will be observance of certain rules when handling food and personal hygiene. Also, to prevent its development can be a refusal to use those products to which there is an individual intolerance and raw water from the aqueduct. And in no case at occurrence of this pathological bowel dysfunction it is not necessary to be engaged in a selftreatment, especially if diarrhea proceeds within a week or in fecal masses there are inclusions of a blood. With such indicators, an immediate appeal to a specialist is required in order to avoid the severe consequences of this ailment.