Adenoma is a problem faced by many at the age of 45 years. In most cases, its formation is associated with a violation of the hormonal background.
What is adenoma and its types?
An adenoma is a benign tumor that is formed from the glandular epithelium. It occurs in all systems of the body, where there is such an epithelium. From the localization depends the structure of the adenoma, the themes and features of growth.
There are several types of such benign formations:
- Cystic. Often develops in the pancreas, appendix. Such a tumor has a closed sacciform structure. Can be transformed into malignant.
- Papillary. Characterized by the presence of papillary growths. They can protrude into the lumen of the gland.
- Polypoid. Represents a polyp that has arisen as a result of proliferation of glandular tissue.
- Solid. Has a poorly developed connective tissue stroma. Therefore, the gland epithelium fuses into a continuous field.
- Tubular. Consists of narrow channels, which are lined with epithelium. Between these cells is the stroma.
Which organs affect the tumor?
A tumor can affect any glandular organs. Adenoma can occur in the lactic, pancreatic, thyroid, in the uterus, lungs, bronchi, stomach, intestines, throat.
If it appears in the pituitary gland, there is pain in the head, the appearance of a large number of pimples, a decrease in sexual desire.
With thyroid adenoma, there are hormonal disorders. This kind is accompanied by lethargy, a sharp decrease in weight.
One of the most famous is prostate adenoma. Men complain of frequent urination, turbid urine, constipation. Such a benign tumor can arise in the lung. During such a disease a person suffers from shortness of breath, a cough. There is wheezing.
Scientists to this day can not say with certainty why the adenoma develops.
Most researchers say that the risk group includes people with various hormonal disorders. At the same time, the older the person, the higher the risk of developing the disease.
Increases the risk of developing the disease:
- the presence of obesity,
- alcohol abuse,
- improper diet.
There was no relationship between prostate adenoma and sexual activity, orientation, inflammatory diseases.
Often, signs of adenomas are completely absent. Especially in the early stages of disease formation. As the tumor increases, the manifestations become more pronounced and depend on localization.
For example, with prostate adenoma, a weakening of the jet during urination is detected.
The greatest discomfort occurs when the size of the tumor becomes so large that it begins to squeeze other organs, vessels, nerve endings. If the adenoma is hormone-active, then there are no signs that are characteristic for raising the level of a hormone in the blood.
Features of the tumor in various organs
Stomach and intestines
They are formed from the cells of the digestive tract. At risk people are over 40 years old, but sometimes it is found in children.
Among the main causes of the disease is gastritis. Especially if it is aggravated by malnutrition, external factors. According to some scientists, the genetic predisposition plays a significant role.
Adenomas of the digestive tract are called polyps. They do not have symptoms, so they are often discovered by chance. With an increase in such formations cause problems with permeability in the stomach. Sometimes the result is gastric bleeding.
Gastric and intestinal adenoma happens:
- of the Tubular. It has the structure of glandular branches.
- Insecticide. This formation has a velvety surface.
- Tubularly villous. Combines the characteristics of the first two types.
- Toothed. Has a serrated structure.
Treatment is mandatory, because if it is absent, the risk of a benign tumor growing into a malignant tumor increases.
The adenoma is removed surgically. If we are talking about several polyps, then loop electrocoagulation is used.
Fibrous adenoma of the breast of a woman can detect itself. Education has a smooth surface of the rosary contour, is movable.
In some cases, the formation begins to grow intensively. Adenoma occurs in women of reproductive age, can be single or multiple.
In self-examination, a tight knot is found. Sometimes adenomas have a coarse-grained surface. The color of the skin over the formation does not change. There are no other symptoms.
The main treatment is dynamic observation. Sometimes surgical removal is advisable. It is relevant when there is a suspicion of transformation into a malignant tumor, with progressive growth and huge size.
Distinguish the formation:
- Nipple. Occurs in the ducts. Symptoms include the appearance of discharge from the nipple. It can be covered with ulcers, crust.
- The tubular form has the correct structures. It reminds alveolar ducts of the gland.
- The lactating species has pronounced secretory changes. The same occurs during pregnancy and lactation.
In this organ, the adenoma can be a single node or be represented by multiple seals. If there are more than five such formations, then the adenoma is diagnosed.
The risk of transformation into a malignant tumor is no more than 10%.
- The trabecular form of the tumor consists of both hepatic beams. At the same time, they are thicker than healthy cells and are arranged in a chaotic manner.
- The tubular form is distinguished by the formation of stagnant bile in trabeculae of glandular lumens.
There are many reasons for the development of the disease. Among them is the intake of hormonal drugs, including contraceptives. At risk are people who have relatives with such a disease, as well as living in an unfavorable ecological situation.
Symptom is manifested by pain in the hypochondrium, a feeling of heaviness in this area, pallor of the skin, sweating, low blood pressure, thirst.
Treatment consists in general strengthening of orgasm, observation of pathology. With growth, it is recommended that the adenoma be removed with histology. Be sure to stop using hormonal drugs.
Adenoma occurs on the mucous membranes and is characterized by hyperplasia of the glandular apparatus. Education has a pink or white-gray color. The consequence is the difficulty of nasal breathing.
These tumors are divided into several types:
- Bleeding polyp. Looks like a rounded shape. The surface of education consists of lobules. Frequent symptoms are bleeding from the nose, especially when blowing or sneezing.
- Papilloma. This species is less common. Reminiscent of the head of cauliflower, which is located on the nasal septums, in the shells of the lower walls. Symptoms give off a sense of the presence of a foreign body.
- Adenoma can not reach large sizes. It is mobile, has an uneven surface. Treatment consists only in the surgical removal of education. Bleeding adenoma is removed by a loop, after it is cauterized.
This is a hereditary disease, but in half the cases - the result of a fresh mutation. Begins in childhood or adolescence. There are three types:
- Pringle-Bourneville. Small nodules of round or oval shape with yellow or cinnamon-red color. They have a clear and smooth surface.
- Adenoma Allopo-Leredda-Darier. Reminiscent of warts that are symmetrically located on the skin of the face.
- Cystic epithelium. Nodules up to 10 mm in diameter with a doughy, dense consistency. There are on the leg, then located in the area of large folds. May be found in the mouth.
of the Brain
The pituitary gland is mostly affected. Develops in the anterior lobe. According to statistics, 25% have small formations in this part.
Brain adenomas are divided into:
- hormonally inactive,
The MRI picture shows the pituitary adenoma
. Education does not always carry danger. Some of them do not produce hormones, others do not grow. But even such tumors must be observed.
The first signs are vision impairment, the appearance of headaches. At large sizes, libido decreases, fatigue, weakness, and weight gain are noted.
Treatment is performed surgically or with radiation therapy. Today, removal of the pituitary adenoma is often carried out through the nose. Some kinds are treated medically.
The disease develops due to pathologies of the lung tissue and bronchi. Tumors appear in people under 35 years. Benign formation forms around itself a capsule of connective tissue.
Distinguish the central, peripheral, mixed form. The first species is most common, it affects the bronchi.
Symptoms include fever, attacks of suffocation. Often accompanied by a digestive disorder, skin reactions. Adenoma leads to an increase in serotonin levels.
Benign lesions are removed by enucleation. Partial resection of the lung may be prescribed. Treatment depends on how deep the tumor is in the tissues.
In medicine, the adenoma of the uterus is called myoma. Education has a fibrous basis.
It appears in women older than 30 years. The reasons are irregular sexual life, change of partners, overweight, genetics, hormone intake and some others. Symptoms in the disease there, but pay attention to the allocation of blood outside menstruation, dull pain in the lower abdomen, abundant discharge in the period of menstruation.
Treatment is hormonal or surgical. The first method is good if the tumor is small. Surgical is relevant for the growth of education, as well as when it affects the work of other organs.
Pancreatic adenoma is hormonal-active and inactive. The first type is insuloma, which produces insulin.the symptomatology of this form is to increase perspiration during fasting, physical exertion, weakness, flushes of blood to the head.
In severe situations, convulsions and loss of consciousness may occur. Hormonal-negative do not show themselves, so they are accidentally.
Treatment is possible exclusively surgically. It is necessary to adhere to a certain diet. Then there will be a favorable outlook.
of the Bladder
Adenoma often leads to atrophy of contracting muscles of the bladder.
The main complaints are night awakenings for bladder emptying on average 2-6 times a night, a weakened jet of urine, applying efforts for urination, acute urinary retention, pain. Sometimes, to facilitate the symptoms, a catheter is inserted.
Treatment can have three directions. Dynamic monitoring - control is carried out at regular intervals.is prescribed to those who do not have symptoms.
Medication and surgical treatment is prescribed depending on the type of disease, its peculiarities.
Depending on the location, the doctor performs a finger examination. The presence of hard areas suggests a tumor. Ultrasound and biopsy are prescribed.
The first method of investigation allows to reveal the localization of education, its size and structure. Biopsy due to its traumatism is not always carried out. Its main purpose is to eliminate the risk of developing malignant formation, as well as metastatic lesion.
Computed tomography is often prescribed, it can be accompanied by intravenous contrast enhancement, for example, in the study of adrenal adenoma. This method allows you to estimate the size and density of education. If the hormonal activity of the adenoma is evaluated, then laboratory tests are carried out.
Video shows diagnostics for villous adenoma of the rectum:
How to treat an adenoma?
If the doctor is sure that the tumor is small and benign, an observation is suggested. If it does not grow, does not affect the work of other organs, then treatment is not assigned.
Types of surgical treatment
Depending on the indications is assigned:
- Hemithyroidectomy. The part of the organ is removed. First, the doctor gets access to the affected area, then it is separated from the surrounding tissues, part is removed.
- Subtotal resection. Means removing most of the organ. Typically, the body ceases to cope with its functions in full, so supportive therapy is prescribed.
- Endoscopic resection is most commonly used. It is effective for small tumors. A special tool cuts the damaged tissues, the vessels are coagulated. Cut tissues are sent to the histology.
The doctor may offer a laser treatment for adenoma or thermal effects. The result of the techniques is the reduction of the tumor.
If the adenoma affects the production of hormones, then hormonal medications are prescribed. Additionally phytotherapeutic and tissue preparations are used.
Drugs are prescribed at the first stages of the disease, if there are contraindications to the operation. In this case, drug treatment is not a substitute for other types of exposure.
The medication is prescribed for a period of 6 months. Sometimes patients are forced to take them for life.
Treatment with folk remedies
It is recommended to use folk remedies as a supportive therapy for adenoma. Juice of parsley mixed with honey helps to reduce the size. Take two spoons a few times a day.
Regardless of the size of the adenoma, observe a diet.
Excluded from the diet is all spicy and fatty. Prefer foods containing fatty acids. They will improve the work of the heart, the circulatory system.
The acids contain vitamins, which are directly involved in the production of certain hormones. Useful are fish oil, liver poultry and walnuts.
There are no guaranteed measures that would prevent the appearance of adenoma.
But doctors give general recommendations: avoid hypothermia, do not sit for a long time in a situation that causes stagnation of blood circulation, lead an active lifestyle, abandon bad habits.
It is necessary to undergo regular medical check-up and monitor the level of hormones.