Neoplasms in the stomach are pathologies in the form of cell proliferation in which the growth and / or reproduction rates( benign) have changed or cell maturation( malignant neoplasms) has been disrupted.
Benign tumors are neoplasms that appear in different layers of the gastric wall( mucus, submucosal, muscle and subspecies) with slow growth and no signs of malignancy( genetic changes in cells).
They are divided into epithelial( polyps) and non-epithelial neoplasms, which occur when fat, nerve, vascular structures or muscle cells grow.
Depending on the type of growth, benign neoplasms in the stomach are classified:
- intramural neoplasms( sprouting inside the organ wall);
- endogastric( growing in the lumen of the stomach);
- exogastric( expanding toward neighboring organs).
Cancer and sarcoma of the stomach are cancerous. They arise as a result of indomitable division of immature epithelial cells of the inner layer of the organ( in cancer) and undifferentiated cells( with sarcoma).Malignant neoplasms can also develop during the degeneration of adenomatous polyps( in 10% of cases) or malignant transformation in cancer, or as a result of malignancy of non-epithelial benign tumors( hemangiomas, fibroids, neuroendocrines, myomas).
Polypoid formations in the stomach
Polypoid formations are tumor-like outgrowths in the lumen of the stomach, of various shapes( oval or spherical), of a dense or soft consistency, with a smooth surface or granulations that have a base or foot. They can be single, diffuse( Menetries disease) or multiple adenomatous or hyperplastic.
Polyps in the stomach are more often located in the pyloradental department and are more common in men after 40-50 years.
Adenomatous polyps are formed as a result of pathological proliferation of glandular epithelium and are most dangerous due to the high risk of transformation into cancer( malignancy), the risk of degeneration is highest with large neoplasms and their ulceration.
Hyperplastic or tumor-like polyps occur most frequently( in 70-80% of cases).They arise as a result of hyperplasia of the superficial epithelium of the stomach and are often accompanied by atrophic gastritis.
Menetries disease) is often a combination of adenomatous and hyperplastic plips, the tissues of which have glandular elements, enlarged covering epithelium, vessels, connective tissue and other structures. This pathology is considered a precancerous disease due to the high risk of malignancy of the tumor.
Submucosal body and antrum digestion of the stomach
Non-epithelial stomach tumors growing from muscle, nerve, connective or adipose tissue, vessels or mixed tumors( consisting of different types of cells) are often localized in the submucosal layer of the stomach and its antrum and are characterized by germinationtumors inside the wall( intramural).Due to the location of the tumor in the submucosal layer, non-epithelial tumors may not have clinical manifestations for a long time and are often occasional findings in endoscopic or radiographic examination of the patient. Most often submucosal formations of the body and antrum of the stomach are benign( leiomyoma, fibroma, lipoma, hemangioma, neuroendocrinal), but in a number of cases, malignant neoplasms( leiomyosarcoma, inflammatory fibrosarcoma) are diagnosed after histological examination.
Mucous stomach cancer
Mucous cancer is considered to be a fairly common oncological disease that develops during malignant degeneration of epithelial cells in chronic or atrophic gastritis against duodenal-gastral reflux. It develops from genetically altered cells of the gastric mucosa, which have a tendency to active reproduction, toxin formation, rapid germination in the tissue and metastasis. Most often, the tumor is located in the pyloric part of the organ or on its small curvature. The pathological process has a mucous diffuse or finely mushy character with rapid infiltration( germination) in the muscular layer of the stomach wall and abundant growth of fibrous tissue in the muscular and submucosal layer. Treatment of patients with surgical mucosal cancer is the removal of part of the organ with a cancerous tumor.