The duodenum performs the most important digestive functions in the human body. In her cavity, food is treated with digestive pancreatic fermented juices, and food is prepared for cavity absorption.
In addition, the 12-duodenum is a hormone-producing structure that produces substances that regulate the real metabolism and digestive processes. When there is inflammation of the duodenum, duodenitis is diagnosed.
What is duodenitis?
Duodenitis is the inflammation of the mucosal tissues of the duodenum. When the structures of the upper parts are affected, the pathology manifests itself as a peptic gastric process, and the inflammation of the lower sections is accompanied by a symptomatology resembling cholecystitis or pancreatitis.
There are many classifications of pathologies. In the form of acute and chronic duodenitis. According to the endoscopic picture, duodenitis is divided into fairly diverse species.
- Hemorrhagic - characterized by the presence of bleeding, leaving the feces and with vomiting. Such duodenitis arises from prolonged use of medications, alcohol or foods that irritate the intestinal mucosa.
- Atrophic - for a similar form of inflammation, the pathological thinning of the intestinal mucosa tissues, the violation of its motility and the functionality of the gastrointestinal tract as a whole, are inherent.
- Catarrhal duodenitis is accompanied by dizziness and pain, nausea and vomiting reactions. Such a form of pathology develops usually against the background of abuse of alcohol, spicy and sour food, tobacco smoking.
- Erosive - characterized by active erosive lesions. Most often leads to the development of ulcers of the duodenum.
- Phlegmonous - is characterized by the development of suppurative processes in the lower intestine structures.
- Erosive-ulcerative - erosive and ulcerative lesions are formed on the mucous membranes of the intestinal wall. A similar form, if combined with an inflammation of the gastric mucosa, is called gastroduodenitis.
- Superficial - inflammatory processes affect the upper mucosal layers of the gut.
- Erythematous - accompanied by paroxysmal soreness, ailments, headaches, oppression of the functionality of the respiratory and cardiovascular system. The pathology develops against the background of long-term inflammation in the GIT system.
Duodenitis differs in localization: diffuse and local, postbulbar and bulbar. Isolate and specific forms of mucosal inflammatory disease, for example, fungal, tuberculosis or immunodeficiency, etc.
According to the degree of structural disorders, duodenitis is atrophic, interstitial or superficial. Depending on the etiological pattern of pathology, the primary and secondary forms of duodenitis are classified.
The etiology of duodenitis can be divided into two groups: the causes of chronic and acute inflammation of the duodenum. The following are the reasons for the acute form of the inflammatory process:
- Frequent abuse of food, which is irritating to the mucous membranes of the digestive tract. This includes spicy and smoked products, coffee and fatty foods, fried. The stomach is compelled to throw out more hydrochloric acid for processing such products, with redundancy of which there is a weakening of the protective barrier of the intestine.
- Pathologies of individual parts of the digestive system, such as hepatitis or pancreatitis, colitis or cirrhosis, ulcerative gastric lesions, etc. Against the background of such pathologies, blood supply to tissues is disrupted, and inflammatory processes in neighboring structures often shift to PDC.
- Foodborne toxicity that occurs against the background of activity of pathogenic microorganisms such as staphylococcus, clostridia or enterococcus, Helicobacter pylori, etc. When the reproduction of such microorganisms, the cell structures of the duodenum are damaged and die. As a result, hyperthermia and inflammation of mucous tissues develop.
- Accidental ingestion of foreign objects or toxins. Foreign objects can easily injure the intestines, and toxic substances burn mucous.
- Reflux, in which there is a reverse thrown mass from the small intestine in the DPC.This phenomenon is often observed in violation of intestinal patency or spasms of its lower parts.
As for the chronic form of intestinal inflammation, the reasons for its development are several other etiological factors.
- Disorders of intestinal activity such as innervation disorders, poor peristalsis and chronic constipation, adhesions. Against the background of similar pathologies, peristalsis worsens, the contents stagnate and stretch the walls of the DPC, atrophying them and traumatizing the mucous membrane.
- Chronic pathologies of the cholelithiasis, hepatic and pancreatic structures cause enzymatic disorders, leading to unstable functionality and defenselessness of intestinal structures.
- Chronic gastric pathologies, accompanied by increased release of hydrochloric acid, cause cellular damage to the duodenum, causing thinning of the mucous layer.
With prolonged exposure to these conditions, there is a violation of the digestive blood circulation, which lowers the protective factors and provokes inflammatory processes.
Symptoms of inflammation of the duodenum in adults and children
The clinical picture of duodenitis is caused by the etiology and form of pathology, the presence of concomitant digestive disorders and disorders, etc.
But there are a group of manifestations that are considered typical of duodenitis.
- Soreness in the center of the abdomen;
- Severity and feeling of overeating;
- Digestive disorders and disorders such as gassing, nausea and diarrhea, rumbling, etc.;
- Belching with bitter aftertaste, bilious vomiting;
- Fatigue and persistent weakness;
- Jaundice of the skin, which is associated with the penetration of bile into the bloodstream;
- Nervous system disorders.
Soreness in the inflammation of the mucosa of the duodenum is very diverse and depends on many factors.
For example, in chronic duodenitis, patients complain of a dull tenderness two hours after a meal, and with a ulcerative form of the pathology, pain syndrome, on the contrary, bothers on an empty stomach, with gastroduodenitis, pain occurs 15 minutes after a digestive, and with lesions of the lower intestinesoreness is localized in the intestine.
Symptoms of exacerbation of the disease
The main clinical manifestations of duodenitis are painful epigastric spasms, similar to manifestations of gastritis. There is a similar soreness immediately after eating, and to eliminate them, as a rule, is almost impossible.
Also aggravation is supplemented by constant nausea urges with increased salivation, sometimes vomiting is regularly disturbed.
The patient has no appetite, hypotension can occur and frequent migraine pains, the body is constantly in a weakened state. In rare cases, the symptomatology of the aggravation of the inflammatory process on the mucosa of the duodenum is supplemented by a slight hyperthermia.
If untimely treatment or lack of treatment, duodenitis progresses and can lead to a number of dangerous complications.
- Ulcerous lesions of the duodenum. Under the influence of the inflammatory process and the action of gastric acid on the wall of the bowel an ulcer is formed. Pathology is manifested by painful sensations in the epigastrium, especially after physical overloads, alcoholic libations or long intervals between food intakes.
- Intestinal obstruction. Complication is manifested by intense pain after eating after about a quarter of an hour. Patients are troubled by bile vomiting.
- Bleeding in intestinal structures. If the patient suffers an erosive form of inflammation, then such a complication is very likely. In patients with this, there are signs of hypotension, blood admixture in feces, dizziness and chronic weakness.
- Disorders of intestinal absorption develop against a background of enzymatic insufficiency. Initially, signs of malabsorption are associated with diarrhea, but with the progression of the pathological process, they are supplemented by an immunodeficiency state and anemia. Patients in childhood have a physical developmental lag.
It is easy to detect the development of inflammation of the mucous tissues of the duodenum without difficulty when performing diagnostic gastroscopy, FGD.
How to cure duodenal duodenitis in adults and children?
Therapy of duodenitis in patients of any age is complex.
It should promote the normalization of digestive processes and the elimination of acute inflammation, hinder the chronicity of pathology and lead to a rapid restoration of the functionality of the KDP.
Usually, therapy takes place at home, because it does not require hospitalization. It is necessary to take certain medications, diet therapy, adequate rest, sufficient sleep and rejection of unhealthy habits.
But under certain conditions the patient is hospitalized in a hospital. This practice is used in cases of exacerbation or neglect of the pathological process, suspicion of oncology or the threat of bleeding, as well as in the case of periduodenitis.
In acute duodenitis, gastric lavage with permanganate-alkaline solution is shown for 2 days. Then the patient needs to drink potassium permanganate necessarily on an empty stomach. After that, therapy is supplemented with other medications.
Shows the intake of enveloping drugs, antispasmodics for the removal of soreness like Drotaverina and Papaverina.
A chronic form of pathology usually requires inpatient therapy. For this purpose, antibiotic drugs like Amoxicillin, Clarithromycin, Metronidazole or Tetracycline, etc. are also prescribed. In addition, the reception of means of enveloping action( Sulfacrate), enzymatic preparations( such as Creon 10000) and antacids( De-Nol, Maalox or Almagel) is indicated.
Also, patients are assigned H2-gistaminoblokatory, whose effect is aimed at inhibiting the production of hydrochloric acid( famotidine or ranitidine).
To regulate the contractile activity of the gastrointestinal tract prokinetics like Ganaton or Itomed are assigned. These drugs help the intestinal masses to move forward, have anti-edematous and antiemetic effects. The complex of preparations is selected individually in accordance with the form of pathology.
Necessarily in the therapeutic program is present and dietotherapy. Correction of the diet is necessary for pathologies like duodenitis. To eat it is necessary fractional, 5-6-fold, but the minimum portions.
Carbohydrates in the menu are reduced, and the percentage of protein foods is increased. Especially the patients are recommended fruit fresh juices, rich in ascorbic acid.
In the chronic form of the inflammatory process, it is recommended to eat daily soup dishes with cereals or vegetables, but without meat additives. You can dilute them with milk, cream. Gradually, the diet includes lean fish and meat. It is necessary to use sour-milk products like sour cream, curdled milk, kefir, cottage cheese. Eggs, boiled soft-boiled vegetables and vegetables in a boiled form are useful.
If the patient follows the dietary recommendations scrupulously, there will soon be a noticeable improvement in the condition, and then a complete recovery without any complications.
In addition to medicament and diet therapy, you can use folk recipes. Usually folk treatment of duodenitis is associated with the reception of a variety of herbal decoctions.
Especially effective in the treatment of inflammation of the duodenal ulcer.
Grass is brewed( 2 large spoonfuls of raw materials for a glass of boiling water) and stand for half an hour in a bath. Take 1/3 cup for half an hour before a meal, it turns out three times a day.
It is also useful against duodenitis and plantain juice with honey, which is mixed in an amount of 3 large spoons and 1 teaspoonful, respectively. The resulting mass is divided into 3 doses and eaten per day.
In addition, a good therapeutic effect on inflammation of the duodenum is distinguished by oregano and chamomile, wormwood and fennel, melissa and sage, mint, etc.
Reviews about the treatment of
I was put in hospital with gastroduodenitis,, then a strict diet for 2-3 years and taking herbal infusions. Fortunately, the grandmother lived in the village, collected all herbs. At observance of all references illness or disease have cured, but I all life remember those terrible pains and I do not eat anything unhealthy. I'm afraid again to catch inflammation of the duodenum and stomach.
And I have been suffering from gastroduodenitis since I was 14 years old. What only did not accept, probably, to cure it is unreal. Although almost 10 years, he did not show up, recently went to check, there is not everything in place. Now I do not accept anything, but I'm sitting on the right diet. Sometimes after the forbidden begins to ache a little, but I eat homemade yogurt with an overripe banana and all lets go.
Duodenitis was discovered when there was still a pregnant woman, no medication is allowed, so we drank herbs and very carefully. Diet is our everything. Without it, nowhere, and you need to observe it for a long time and without failures, then everything will pass.
Prognosis and prevention of
The primary preventive measure against duodenitis is a healthy diet, a complete cessation of smoking and severely restricted consumption of alcohol.
If any gastrointestinal symptoms are revealed, it is necessary to start treatment prescribed by a specialist. It is also necessary to avoid self-medication and uncontrolled administration. Prevention of relapse in chronic forms of pathology consists in periodic medical examination, spa treatment, etc.
Video transmission about duodenitis: