The disease, caused by small lanceolate flatworms, liver flukes, always begins in an acute form. Getting into the human body in the form of larvae contained in the invasive fish of fresh water bodies, the parasite reaches sexual maturity in the liver and bile ducts, where it lays eggs. The source of nutrition for the opisthorch( liver trematode) is the red blood cells of human blood, mucous secretions of bile ducts and epithelial cells.
The acute onset of opisthorchiasis with fever, allergic manifestations and high leukocyte counts of the eosinophilic type is usually diagnosed three weeks after infection. The course of acute opisthorchiasis occurs depending on the extent of parasite damage in different forms:
- Light with an increase in temperature, maximum up to 38 ° C.
- Medium, when the body temperature reaches 39 ° C, itchy rashes appear on the skin, and the ESR reaches high values.
- Severe degree of the disease, which is noted in 15-20% of cases, and depending on the place of preferential arrangement of parasites is typhoid-like, bronchopulmonary, gastroenterocolonial or hepatocholangic form.
Acute development of opisthorchiasis is a reaction of the body to the penetration of parasites into the internal organs of a person. Mediators of immune inflammation is histamine, and factors that stimulate the fight against parasites, contribute to the violation of blood circulation of all human organs and tissues, and edema develops.
Symptoms of acute opisthorchiasis
The danger of this helminthic invasion lies in the variety of symptoms and the absence of common symptomology for opisthorchiasis. In accordance with the exact version of the development of the disease. A typhoid-like exacerbation of helminthiasis lasts no more than 17 days and is characterized besides high fever:
- by a febrile condition and severe chills;
- with an instant increase in lymph nodes;
- deterioration of the body in general terms.
In this case, there are complaints of pain in the muscles, joints, heart pain, and also possible cough, skin rashes, nausea. With the predominant lesion of the liver, the manifestations correspond to the signs of liver disease( dull aching pains or cramping, enlarged liver and spleen).
Development of gastroenterocolonial acute opisthorchiasis cause:
- abdominal pain;
- disorder of stools;
Respiratory tract infection manifests itself:
- is a runny nose;
- by the pharynx;
- with acute symptoms characteristic of bronchitis.
In chronic course of the disease, periods of exacerbation of opisthorchiasis are possible. In this case, all the symptoms characteristic of the acute stage of helminthic invasion are noted. Given the short period of the acute phase of the disease, and the seriousness of the damage to the internal organs of a person during the transition of the invasion to the chronic phase, it is very important to begin treatment in a timely manner.
The increase in the amount of bilirubin, transaminase, the presence of thymol and thymol samples, and the enzyme of the pancreas of the blood during blood analysis testify to the defeat of organs, especially the liver, and the violation of their functions by parasites. To clarify the diagnosis appoint instrumental studies of the liver and bile ducts, computed tomography.
The emphasis in the treatment of acute opisthorchiasis is made on anti-inflammatory and antiallergic drugs, and then they are already carrying out specific treatment. Antibacterial drugs are prescribed for complications of a bacterial nature. Effective specific drugs for fighting parasites that remove them from the body are Praziquantel and choleretic Holosas, Holiver.