When diagnosing heart disease, the attending physician chooses the best methods for collecting data on progressive pathology. Instrumental diagnostic techniques are preceded by data from laboratory tests and anamnesis. The choice of the technique is influenced by the preliminary diagnosis of the doctor, who needs to confirm the results of the hardware examination.
Each method has a number of application features, and invasive methods differ in their list of contraindications. One of the invasive methods used in the diagnosis of cardiac diseases is the catheterization( probing) of the vessels, cavities of the heart, its right and left divisions.
What is cardiac catheterization
A catheter in medicine is commonly called a hollow vessel made of a flexible material. In medicine, the purposes of using the catheter are the introduction of medicinal substances into the cavity, extraction from the fluid cavity, washing the contents of the cavity. When the heart is catheterized, a diagnostic or therape
utic goal is pursued.
Modern catheters for heart probing differ from the Forsman's as a material and manufacturability, as well as greater functionality and applications. Catheterization is often replaced by the term "sounding".
More information on cardiac catheterization and stenting will be given by the video below:
To whom it is prescribed
Before the catheterization, its feasibility is determined. If there is a need for detailed data collection to establish a diagnosis or to clarify the current status of pathology in the heart, the list of suspected pathology is confirmed when:
- disturbed the operation of valvular and semilunar cardiac valves;
- all forms of ischemic heart disease;
- increase in pressure in pulmonary blood vessels( pulmonary hypertension);
- heart failure;
- heart defects of congenital etiogenesis;
- of amyloidosis of the heart.
For therapeutic purposes, the procedure for insertion of the catheter is carried out in the case of:
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- stenosis of the heart valves with dilated narrowing;
- arterial disorders for the purpose of stenosing vessels;
- regulation of medical measures in the treatment of congenital heart disease.
For what and how often do
If a physician proposes to make a procedure for insertion into the heart of a catheter, he may pursue one of the goals:
- to assess the status of the structure and functionality of the heart;
- assessment of the state of work and structure of the myocardium;
- assessment of the possibility of carrying out radical measures in the field of the heart.
Often, the diagnostic part of the catheterization ends with an intervention in the vessels using balloon angioplasty and other vascular treatment procedures. Catheterization can be performed regardless of the time intervals. After diagnostic purposes, the catheterization can be performed for therapeutic purposes with an interval determined by the physician and independent of the time factor.
Types of procedure
In medical clinics there are 2 types of cardiac catheterization.
- The large , received its name because of the large circle of circulation, the beginning of which starts in the left ventricle and aorta. The catheter penetrates through the aorta into the left ventricle, after which it is possible to regulate the lumen of the coronary arteries of the heart.
- Small , called at the site of penetration of the catheter - right ventricle and pulmonary arteries, serving as the initial links of the small circle of blood circulation in humans.
In both varieties, the pressure in the cavities of the ventricles, the volume of the blood outburst, and other parameters are examined.
Heart types and its features will be described by this video:
Who is not recommended to undergo
Cardiac and other somatic pathologies are not an obstacle for the insertion of a catheter into the left or right part of the heart. Although some body conditions are undesirable for an invasive procedure in the heart. If patients are aware of these conditions, they, in order to avoid dangerous consequences, should warn the medical staff. In such cases, the problem is solved with an increased degree of caution or is rejected until the causes are eliminated.
The problems that allow to suspend the preparation for the procedure are:
- external or internal allergic reaction to medications administered;
- individual intolerance to iodine or the substance administered;
- state of pregnancy;
- use by a patient of Viagra and its analogues to enhance male potency;
- seafood intolerance.
For complications of electrophysiological and other types of cardiac catheterization, let us explain below.
Possible complications of
Invasion of the heart causes complications of a different nature: long-term, cardiopulmonary and local. Despite the variety of possible dangers, there is no more accurate method for diagnosing and treating cardiovascular diseases today. The presumed danger may develop in the area of the heart where the intervention was carried out.
- When small catheterization is not excluded the occurrence of pulmonary edema, malfunctioning of the heart rhythms.
- When there is a large catheterization, there is a danger of following the procedure of accumulation of leaked blood and air in the chest cavity. Do not exclude the defeat of the pericardial bag.
Other complications include:
- pronounced hypotension;
- ischemic stroke;
- traumatic lesion of the coronary artery;
- myocardial infarction;
- penetration of air into the heart chambers;
- is a strong allergy to a contrast drug.
procedure At the time of the scheduled procedure, the patient is sent for blood tests and urine tests, chest X-ray and electrocardiograms. The clinic does not take with them valuables, jewelry. Before the procedure, the patient puts on a white robe. Glasses, watches( if on this arm is not held a catheterization), the hearing aid will not affect the course of the procedure.
- To the attending physician the patient is obliged to inform about the admission of medications, biological supplements, homeopathic remedies. In the presence of instructions for preparing for the catheterization given by medical personnel regarding food intake, drinking regimen and organization of everyday life in the clinic, it needs to be observed.
- Patients with diabetes should inquire about the regimen of drugs to reduce blood glucose levels on the day of the examination. The doctor may prescribe medication to reduce blood viscosity on the day of examination or a few days before the catheterization.
- If the outcome of the procedure is favorable, the patient can return to the home immediately after it is completed. Therefore, it should be agreed with relatives about possible assistance in moving home. If the doctor suggests hospitalization after the end of the procedure, the patient should bring with him personal hygiene items and comfortable clean clothes.
About the algorithm for cardiac catheterization( sensing) in women, men, the child, we will tell below.
Carrying out heart probing and sensing the patient
- With a small catheterization, the needle with the tube is inserted through one of the veins( "royal" or femoral).From the right atrium, the catheter can be guided into the pulmonary artery. With a small variation of the procedure, it is possible even through a small puncture in the interatrial septum that the catheter can reach the left side.
- Usually, a large catheterization is performed through the arteries in the femoral region towards the left side of the heart. This species is more complicated by technology. The usual time for the procedure does not exceed 30-40 minutes. In the presence of additional procedures( balloon angioplasty, etc.), the time of catheterization is prolonged. With the patient, the doctor is spoken during the procedure to monitor his inner well-being.
After the procedure, the insertion site of the catheter is to be bandaged. Usually strong pains and other unpleasant sensations are not felt, but the presence of a cough, a delay in breathing for the doctor serves as an orienting and alarming symptom.
On how the central vein catheterizes, this video will tell:
Decoding the results of
Depending on the technical capabilities of the catheter, various parameters of the heart are monitored in the form of pictures. A separate picture is taken for each parameter. The interpretation of the results is solely the responsibility of a very experienced cardiologist.
For the price of cardiac catheterization, we'll tell you later on the reviews.
Cost of procedure
The average price in Russia for catheter screening procedures varies within the limits of 15,000 rubles, but additional treatment procedures are not included in this cost, nor is the hospitalization period after heart probing.