Stomach cancer is a formed tumor from once healthy, but mutated cells. The site of its dislocation can be in any part of the stomach, and the metastases spread to the lymph nodes and neighboring organs. Forecasts for treatment and survival are minimized, but with a successful operation there are chances.
There is zero and four stages of stomach cancer, which are divided into degrees.
Stage 3 is already a serious cancer and metastasis damage not only to the stomach, but also to neighboring organs, with weak chances of survival, and is divided into 3 degrees: 3 "A", 3 "B", 3 "C".
At 3 "A" stage( degree) the tumor sprouted into the muscle tissue of the stomach, with the capture of six or less lymph nodes.
At 3 "B" stage( degree), the tumor sprouted all tissues and the external wall of the stomach.
At 3 "C" stage, the tumor went beyond the walls, with the capture of five or less lymph nodes.
Unfortunately, the third stage of cancer, because of metastases, is difficult to operate and treat, unless the cancer has not affected the lymph nodes.
In the first place, the occurrence of cancer can trigger bad nutrition. Having a harmful effect on the walls of the stomach, and penetrating into healthy cells, various nitrates and carcinogens can trigger the mutation process.
At the site of destruction, as a rule, once healthy cells mutate and degenerate into cancer.
To damage the mucous membrane and start the process, ordinary salt can also;food additives to enhance the taste and color included in modern products;nicotine;alcohol, especially strong drinks;gassy atmosphere;genetic predisposition or long-standing chronic gastrointestinal diseases.
The general symptomatology at all stages of the cancer is almost identical, only in the last stages there are exacerbations, the symptomatology of sensations is somewhat strengthened.
Common symptoms include:
- lethargy, drowsiness, loss of strength, sensation of weakness in the legs;
- unreasonable nausea and vomiting, sometimes with blood clots;
- loss of appetite, indifference to food smells;
- body temperature can rise to 38, decrease and stay at 37,2-37,4 degrees for several days, although there are no signs of catarrhal diseases.
To the local symptoms of cancer include:
- Painful phenomena in the abdominal region. And the pain is concentrated in the location of the cancer, and there are tearing pains from metastases in other organs.
- Black stool due to blood clots.
- As the cancer develops and increases in size, it may become difficult to pass food. If the cancer is located in the esophagus, then food and fluid may not pass at all.
- A large tumor, formed in the stomach itself, can give a feeling of heaviness in the abdomen and a false persistent feeling of satiety.
- Because of the accumulation of fluid, ascites may develop, the size of the liver may increase.
Diagnosis and predictions of
In 3 stages the tumor already has a visible size, which allows it to be detected by the method of EGF( video-esophagogastroduodenoscopy).
This method allows you to examine the organ from the inside, detect the tumor, establish its size and take a scraping tip for analysis.
In addition to the FGD, a comprehensive examination is scheduled: a blood test for oncomarkers, analysis of stool and gastric juice, ultrasound, computed tomography, and others.
Based on the received analyzes, they make predictions for a successful outcome of the operation and an increase in the life of the patient.
When treating the third stage, a tactic is determined that depends on the nature of the tumor and its metastases.
Inevitably, surgical intervention, in which a significant part of the affected stomach is cut out with lymphodissection, it is possible that the organ is removed entirely.
For the control of metastases, in combination with the surgical method, chemotherapy and hyperthermic chemotherapy are used( the tumor warms up locally during the operation).
Local chemotherapy is more effective than the general intravenous because it is connected directly to the vessels feeding the tumor, which significantly increases the concentration of the drug and its effectiveness.