In connection with the multifunctionality and high-intensity blood flow of the pancreas, it is susceptible to oncological processes more often than other organs. Malignant neoplasms include adenocarcinoma( 90% of the total number, the second highest mortality rate for onco patients), carcinoma( 10%, fatal), cystadenocarcinoma( 20%, 5-year survival 65%), sarcoma( 7%, 5-year survival 44%), carcinoid( survival rate 67%).
The American Cancer Association estimates the number of deaths from this disease in twenty thousand annually, the main causes are smoking, asbestos-containing production, diabetes. Metastases progress to lymph nodes, the symptoms are nonspecific: aching pain of the back and umbilical region, weight loss, migrating thrombophlebitis. Localization in the head( 75%) differs jaundice without pain, discomfort in the right iliac. Treatment consists in Whipple's operation, ectomy, and voluntary operations.
Most often occurs after pancreatitis, localized in the tail( 10%, body( 20%) or head.) Clinical manifestations include itching, discolored feces, beer urine( jaundice), depression, anorexia, back pain irrigation.when the head is enlarged, sprouts and metastasis are often observed, 5% have diabetes, glycemia, gastric vein varices, ERCP, MRI, CT, or ultrasound, etc. Treatment with Whipple procedure with pre-irradiation: Unprofitable cases do not give a prediction higher than halfyes
Cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas
The disease has severe symptoms, is easily diagnosed by any method, has a high survival rate of up to five years. Metastases are present in every fifth case, problems exist in neglected cases. Comocarcinomas with cystadenocarcinoma are elevated, early diagnosis is facilitated,opinion of physicians, are: asbestos, nicotine, diabetes, pancreatitis, genes, treat a tumor by resection of pancreatoduodal or total. Chemotherapy is used before or after surgery, preventing relapse.
The initial period clinic is similar to cancer, later thrombosis, ascites, is added. Increase in border authorities. Symptoms of sarcoma are affected by tumor localization, secretion is reduced, there is steatorrhea and jaundice. Tripine in the analyzes is elevated, just like lipase, amylase. The sarcoma grows faster than cancer, the diagnosis after histology is the most accurate.
The proximal metastases in the lymph nodes are a hallmark of carcinoid, they grow slowly( like the tumor itself).More than 1.5 cm across the tumor were not observed, the symptoms consist of skin hyperemia with increased pressure, or increased salivation, swelling of the face with a sharp drop and tachycardia. Instead of removing the carcinoid( high traumatic), destruction is used by desartering selective, infusion into the artery, drug therapy.
Pancreatic head adenocarcinoma
Pancreatic head adenocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive malignant tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and the most intractable forms of cancer. Neoplasm leads to squeezing the duct of the gallbladder and its outflowing ducts, which causes enzymes and bile to enter the bloodstream, and digestion worsens due to intestinal failure. Gradually jaundice develops and coagulability of blood with excessive formation of thrombi in the veins of the liver and extremities is disturbed. The clinic of venous congestion is gradually aggravated, a thrombus can be separated, as a consequence - a heart attack of one or another organ, depending on the localization of thrombosis. Because of a bad outflow of bile, the symptom of Courvoisier is a noticeable painless increase in the gallbladder. The average life expectancy after diagnosis of adenocarcinoma is 6 months, becauseat the time of its detection, it already metastasizes and causes dysfunction of the gland itself.
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma of the 4th stage
Pancreatic cancer of the 4th degree is found most often after 60 years. The first symptom of the disease is jaundice, which proceeds painlessly and without fever. The yellowish skin tone is replaced by olive, and then - dark green. Mucous and sclera of the eyes also become yellow. Along with this, the appetite decreases, there is weakness, nausea, abdominal pain, fever, feces decolour, and urine darkens.
This is the last stage of adenocarcinoma, which can not be treated, since the tumor allows metastasis, making this process more difficult. To facilitate the patient's condition, it is possible with the help of chemotherapy and surgical intervention. Without intervention, the patient's life expectancy is 6 months, if the operation is performed - 2 years, chemotherapy - 12 months. Further forecasts are unfavorable, often death occurs quickly enough from intoxication and only 1-5% of patients live up to 5 years after radical treatment.
Highly and moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the pancreas
The highly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the pancreas consists of large, often cystic-dilated structures that look like ducts, as well as small tumor glands. This form of malignant pathology is characterized by a weak polymorphism of differentiation: the affected cells differ very little from healthy ones. The main and only distinctive feature is that their nuclei are lengthened and enlarged. This feature of the disease complicates its diagnosis. A highly differentiated adenocarcinoma rarely metastasizes or causes significant complications. In addition, at an early stage of detection, it can be treated and possible complete healing.
Moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the pancreas consists of medium-sized duct structures and tubular cancer glands of various shapes and sizes. It differs from the previous type of adenocarcinoma in that the cells divide faster in the focus of the disease. In addition, there is a high risk of serious complications.this form of adenocarcinoma can metastasize.
Neuroendocrine pancreatic carcinoma
Neuroendocrine pancreatic carcinoma is a slowly developing type of cancer. This type of malignant pathology is very rare, so it has not been sufficiently studied. Scientists have found that it develops from neuroendocrine cells scattered throughout the body, with the gastrointestinal tract most often affected. The disease is difficult to diagnose, tk. It develops without any symptoms until it reaches a neglected form. Like other forms of cancer, it is effectively treated only at the initial stage.
Symptoms and treatment of pancreatic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma takes about one hundred thousand human lives per year. Its symptoms depend on the location of the site. So, if the neoplasm is located in the head of the pancreas, the patients note:
- discomfort in the iliac on the right side;
- jaundice( one of the earliest symptoms);
- nausea and vomiting;
- severe pain at the top of the abdomen, giving away in the back;
- weight loss;
If the tumor is located in the tail or body of the pancreas, it can block the vein from the spleen. This causes it to increase and varicose esophagus and stomach. Sometimes a strong vein dilatation can cause severe internal bleeding. In addition, the tumor reduces the performance of the pancreas, which ceases to secrete enzymes that break down fat. As a consequence, fat appears in the stool, becomes pale and clay. Also, color can change and urine - it gets dark.
Pancreatic carcinoma develops most often after pancreatitis. Among the main symptoms are itching, depression, discolored feces, anorexia, darkened urine, irradiation of pain in the back. Sometimes in parallel, diabetes or glycemia develops.
All types of pancreatic carcinoma are difficult to treat. The main method is surgery, prolonging the patient's life for 6-18 months. In addition, some types of radiation therapy and chemotherapy are used. Simultaneous application of these methods makes it possible to extend the life of the patient for another 6 months.
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma - prognosis
If the disease is detected at a neglected stage, then the prognosis is unfavorable. The disease progresses very quickly and almost 95% of patients die in the first year after its diagnosis, and after the operation only 1-5% live a 5-year boundary. This is due to the peculiarities of the structure and blood supply of the gland.