Ischemia of cerebral vessels: causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention

Ischemia of cerebral vessels is a disease caused by a violation of normal blood flow. It arises from the narrowing of the lumen of the arteries of the brain( their blockage) and causes the oxygen starvation of the cells of all the departments of the central nervous system. Violation of cerebral circulation is characterized by three main forms of the course of the disease:

  • passing ( a short-term manifestation of the pathological process, often the symptoms disappear without definite treatment);
  • acute ( ischemic stroke, persistent symptoms occur, certain areas of the brain are broken, urgent treatment is needed);
  • chronic ( the symptoms of the disease gradually develop, persistent worsening of the patient's condition is observed).

Causes of the development of the disease

  • Atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels. It can result from the accumulation of various fat deposits on the inner walls of the vessels of the brain, which provokes their blockage. Accompanied by a violation of blood flow.
  • Thrombus formation. As a result, there is a complete blockage of the lumens of the arteries of the brain.
  • Heart failure.
  • Anemia.
  • Tachycardia.
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning.

Factors contributing to the development of cerebral ischemia

There are several groups of factors that can trigger the onset of ischemic disease. Changes in morphological signs of cerebral vessels .Such changes are characterized by congenital anomalous signs and a violation of the structure of large cerebral vessels, which is associated with the occurrence of thrombi, atherosclerotic plaques, aneurysms, and prolonged spasms.

  • Changes in hematopoiesis and blood properties .With such changes, the propensity to form blood clots develops due to hypersurvability of blood, the content of protein formations changes, the electrolyte composition of blood changes( with endocrine system diseases and renal pathology).
  • Disorders of cerebral hemodynamics .As a result of severe cardiovascular diseases, anemia and toxic poisoning, there may be a violation of blood flow to the vessels of the brain.
  • Individual or age specific features of metabolism in brain cells .Certain features of cerebral metabolism can provoke a different response of cerebral vessels to a limited blood flow to the brain cells.
  • Stroke is an acute impairment of blood circulation in the brain, leading to damage and death of nerve cells, which are so important for the life of the entire human body. Diagnosis and treatment of ischemic stroke of the brain.

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    Symptoms of the disease

    The development of the disease can be diagnosed at an early stage, since the most striking symptom is rapid fatigue during active brain activity. Gradually a number of additional signs appear, indicating a clear deterioration in the condition.

    The manifestation of clinical symptoms is characterized by a rapid expansion of its sphere of influence. Among the symptoms of cerebral ischemia, the following are distinguished:

    • significant memory impairment;
    • recurring focal headaches;
    • dizziness;
    • syncope;
    • loss of sensitivity;
    • sharp pressure drops;
    • nausea and vomiting;
    • speech disorders;
    • weakness.

    Stages of ischemia of the brain

    1. I stage .The patient's state of health is satisfactory, sometimes dizziness, malaise and chills are observed. Complaints can be associated with irritability, aggressiveness, slowed intellectual abilities. Sometimes there is a "shuffling" gait, coordination is disrupted. Threat to life is not observed.
    2. II stage .Symptoms of cerebral ischemia are increasing. Emotional disturbances and cognitive functions increase. Decreased professional skills, social adaptation, as well as the ability to critical thinking.
    3. III stage .There is a pronounced Parkinson's syndrome, urinary incontinence, gait disturbance. Complaints are practically absent, as the patient is not able to adequately assess his condition. Violated speech, memory. The patient loses the ability to daily life and suffers from maladaptation.

    Diagnosis of the disease

    The difficulty in diagnosing the development of cerebral ischemia is due to the fact that the initial stages of the disease are not accompanied by critical complaints of the patient.

    Because of the absence of nerve endings in the blood vessels, a person is not able to feel the development of an ailment inside the vessel. Therefore, the detection of cerebral ischemia occurs, mainly, when there is already a pronounced symptomatology.

    Diagnosis of ischemia includes a number of studies:
    • study of anamnesis of the patient( there may be co-morbidities: myocardial infarction, diabetes, angina, hypertension);
    • physical examination( blood pressure is measured on the extremities, the heart rate is studied, the symmetry of pulsation in the head vessels is determined);
    • laboratory examination( blood sugar level is measured, lipid blood test is determined);
    • instrumental study( ECG, ophthalmoscopy, scanning and angiography of the brain vessels is done).

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    Treatment of cerebral ischemia

    A doctor may prescribe treatment only after a complete and careful examination of the patient and ascertaining the factors and nature of the spread of atherosclerosis.

    The therapy should be aimed at slowing down the progressive changes in the blood vessels of the brain, preventing ischemic stroke and general disruption of vital activity.
    Treatment includes the use of:

    • drugs that improve blood circulation in the affected arteries;
    • means that improve blood flow and normalize blood pressure;
    • drugs that restore normal metabolism of neurons.

    In the case of a severe stage of the development of the disease or inadequate effectiveness of medicamentous methods, surgical methods are used in the treatment of ischemic disorders of the brain.

    The essence of the surgical procedure: from a clogged arterial vessel, a thrombus or atherosclerotic plaque is extracted, which helps restore blood circulation. Such operations are mainly performed under local anesthesia.

    Consequences and Forecast

    With the timely diagnosis and conduct of effective therapy, the progression of the disease is suspended. However, the presence of concomitant pathologies( arrhythmia, hypertension, diabetes) can cause a decline in performance and lead to disability of the patient.

    With severe brain damage, it is possible to form edema of brain tissue, mass death of neurons, damage to the brain stem. This can lead to paralysis, areflexia and impaired swallowing, breathing.

    Prevention of cerebral ischemia

    Measures to prevent cerebral ischemia are recommended to be carried out from an early age. Among the main prevention procedures:

    • adherence to the correct diet( do not overeat to exclude obesity);
    • sports( to avoid the development of hypodynamia);
    • rejection of bad habits( do not smoke, do not abuse alcohol and drugs);
    • Avoiding stress.

    Maintaining a healthy lifestyle will help to protect your body from the occurrence and development of such a terrible and serious ailment as chronic cerebral ischemia of the brain. Remember: Your health is in your hands!

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