Very often in our life there are periods that we call black bars - piles of seemingly insoluble problems, in addition to all the exams or a blockage at work. Someone at such moments closes in himself, the other - goes to friends "for a glass", the third - resort to the stimulating effect of various means: liters of coffee, packs of cigarettes smoke, and even worse - start absorbing various pills. Is it dangerous for the nervous system such shakes?
In simple terms, stimulants are any substances that help accelerate any processes in the body. As a result of taking stimulants, a person feels unusually cheerful, his sleepiness is lost, he is able to memorize a lot of useful information and use it at the right time.
It's hard to say exactly when stimulants began to be used by drug dealers as a means of bringing fabulous profits. The initial purpose of these substances is health correction in patients with mental disorders and cerebral dysfunctions. Then stimulants became widely used by the Japanese military: they gave stimulating drugs to their suicide bombers before their last flight.
Types of stimulants
Many stimulant drugs are not officially banned anywhere in the world. These include caffeine, nicotine, ephedrine and less common - chifir.
Stronger substances that sometimes alter the unrecognizability of the human psyche are:
- amphetamines - they are called spids on drug addiction;
- methamphetamine - a screw or a prime;
- is dexamphetamine.
Caffeine and nicotine are the most famous, legal CNS stimulants. Caffeine, perhaps, is the most popular. It is found in coffee beans, tea leaves, cola nuts, and also is synthesized industrially. Caffeine in small doses tones up the body, relieves fatigue and drowsiness.
The stimulating effect of caffeine is expressed in the excitation of the cerebral cortex, increased metabolism, improved performance and mental and physical activity. Persons with a weak type of nervous system under the influence of caffeine become irritable, they often have a sleep disorder and nervous system exhaustion.
Caffeine increases blood pressure and, in combination with analgesics, is able to relieve headaches with migraines.
The principle of the action of caffeine as a stimulant of the central nervous system:
Nicotine is no less popular in people who are addicted to stimulants. This alkaloid is found in tobacco leaves and is highly addictive. Addiction not only causes cigarette smoking, but also the use of chewing tobacco or other forms of nicotine - in the form of snuff or nasawa.
The use of nicotine initially causes a strong relaxation, there is tremor in the hands and severe dizziness. As you get used to the stimulant, dependent people note improvement in their short-term memory, concentration, mindfulness. In fairness, it should be noted that these effects last as long as nicotine "walks" through the body, namely - 20-30 minutes, then its effect weakens and the smoker needs a new dose of tobacco.
There are a lot of articles and books written about the dangers of nicotine, we will dwell only on the side effect of this alkaloid as a stimulant. It manifests itself in the development of insomnia or the enhancement of existing sleep disorders, a decrease in appetite and the burning of accumulated fatty deposits.
A stimulant such as ephedrine has become very popular among athletes and those who wish to lose weight. It is an alkaloid of plant origin, it is found in leaves of evergreen ephedra. Not so long ago ephedrine was widely used in medicine for the therapy of allergic manifestations, as part of preparations for the treatment of asthma and poisoning with various narcotic substances.
At the moment, the turnover of ephedrine in our country is severely limited due to the use of the drug for other purposes, namely, as a raw material for the manufacture of stronger narcotic stimulants. Prohibited ephedrine is contained in drugs for weight loss and is taken as doping by athletes.
Ephedrine stimulates the nervous system so forcefully that a person ceases to feel pain and fatigue for a while, his physical abilities and mental capacity increase significantly, a person overflows with positive emotions, he is unusually cheerful and cheerful. All this is a consequence of activation of the receptors of the sympathetic nervous system, as a result of which the pressure rises, muscle tone rises, the blood glucose level and the rhythm of the heart rate increase.
Ephedrine is not very expensive and therefore some drug addicts prefer this particular stimulant for the artisanal manufacture of stronger drugs. After removing ephedrine from the body, a person feels broken and a strong decline in strength, which entails a desire to again take a stimulant. Thus, ephedrine dependence develops.
Cocaine, amphetamines and methamphetamines, banned all over the world, have a stronger narcotic effect.
Cocaine is considered to be the most powerful plant-based psychostimulant. The leaves of the coca bush were chewed by other South American Indians to achieve cheerfulness and vigor. Today, cocaine is a white crystalline powder, used primarily for inhalation through the nose.
The reception of cocaine causes a powerful wave of euphoria, comparable only with orgasm or a prick of heroin. Cocaine stimulates the higher centers of the nervous system, making a person excited and energetic. Adapting to cocaine comes gradually, forcing drug addicts to increase the dose. As the dosage increases, the remaining parts of the nervous system become active, causing the heart to beat faster, provoking an increase in blood pressure, deepening the breathing, causing increased agitation and sleep disturbance.
Cocaine is very expensive entertainment, for a less affluent population there is a kind of cocaine, like crack. Smoking kreka leads to an even stronger stimulation of the nervous system, causing a strong euphoria, hallucinations, increased sensitivity, increased mental activity and physical strength. Weakening the effect of the drug introduces the addict into a state of severe depression, so crack addicts go to great lengths to get another stimulator plate.
In a video on the effects of cocaine:
Synthetic amphetamines are considered to be similar to cocaine and are widespread among young people. Thanks to amphetamine, various complex projects are easily carried out, endurance increases. After taking the drug, young people can spend all night on the dance floor, completely without feeling physical fatigue, and next morning to go to school.
Amphetamine is popular in the environment of girls who are always on a diet. The stimulant suppresses the appetite, causing at the same time frenzied activity, as a result of which the organism burns the accumulated deposits by activating the internal reserves.
One of the types of amphetamine is the psychostimulant methamphetamine. Its stimulating effect on the body differs little from the analogue - amphetamine, it also uses all the internal reserves of the body, causing insomnia and a surge of energy. The only difference is that methamphetamine is much stronger in action and does not cause back reactions - lethargy and drowsiness. In this connection, the dependence on meta comes much faster, practically from the first application.
Action on the body
Any stimulant of the central nervous system has the following effects:
- high performance;
- good mood;
- vivacity, activity;
- no fatigue;
- increased activity.
In addition to this positive effect, stimulants also cause negative symptoms:
- anxiety and mood swings;
- cardiac arrhythmia;
- lack of appetite, rapid weight loss and anorexia.
To any, even easy stimulants, the dependence develops gradually. Some can not live a day without a few cups of coffee, others smoke a large number of cigarettes, claiming that nicotine helps them concentrate. It is not necessary to speak about dependence on stronger stimulants - it develops instantly.
Narcologists say that the constant artificial stimulation of the nervous system in general and the brain in particular, brings enormous harm to the body, leading to an early depletion of body resources.
Some believe that a single dose of stimulants will not affect the psyche in any way. This is wickedness. Any stimulating substances cause addiction, so it is unlikely that anyone will confine themselves to a single use of the substance. The prolonged intake of activating substances is extremely detrimental to the psyche of a drug addict - suicidal thoughts begin to follow, severe depression, depression, fear and apathy are observed.
Insomnia, as a result of taking medications, can last several days, further draining the body's resources, leading the addict into a state of extreme fatigue. Lack of appetite and adequate nutrition causes a terrible disease - anorexia, from which a drug addict can die within a few months.
As such, there is no physical dependence on the stimulants, there is no breakage and terrible pain, as with the refusal of heroin. There is a terrible apathy and an unwillingness to live. However, if the addict does not abandon the use of stimulants, the payment will be an early death from complete physical exhaustion or treatment in a psychiatric clinic due to the onset of psychosis.