Urea in urine, found during analysis, can scare any person. Many people think that this is the inevitable precursor of urolithiasis, which will lead to even more serious health problems and long treatment. In fact, the single occurrence of urate salt deposits in the urine in the absence of other symptoms is a non-hazardous phenomenon. And in most cases, to cope with this pathology is possible due to diet and safe drugs.
Urate in urine - what is it?
Under the frightening term "urates" are covered sodium and potassium salts of uric acid, which float in the urine in the form of crystals and form a precipitate. If urate crystals are present in the urine constantly, they can connect and form stones, which then will detect an ultrasound scanner - in the kidneys and bladder.
The main "culprit" of the appearance of uric acid in our body is purines. These substances in small quantities are everywhere: in the cells of our body, in foods, ready meals and even medicines. But there are products where the amount of purines is just off scale - it's meat by-products, fatty fish, meat( including chicken) broth, cocoa, and also some vegetables.
During the preparation of food and when ingested in our body, purines are destroyed, and uric acid is formed.
The presence and volume of uric acid salts is detected using a general urine test. On the form with the results, the number of urates is marked by crosses: from one to four.
Normally, urates in the urine of a healthy person( both child and adult) should not generally be determined. However, there are reasons that can provoke a short "burst" of salt volume, so a slight increase is considered the norm. If there are 2 crosses in the analysis, there is no cause for concern. But if you mark 3 or 4, you will need additional tests and examinations.
A healthy person has 23.8-29.6 mmol / L uric acid per day, but does not form a precipitate.
The maximum permissible values for patients of different ages are presented in the table:
Uric acid, mmol / day.
|Toddlers under 1 year||0.35-2.0|
|Children 1-4 Years||0.5-2.5|
|Children 4-8 years||0.6-3.0|
|Children 8-14 years old||1,2-6,0|
|After 14 years||1,48-4,43|
In men, the amount of urea in urine corresponding to the norm is slightly higher than in women( 210-420 μmol / l and 150 to 350 μmol / l, respectively).
The main reason for the occurrence of potassium-sodium salts in urine is the active use of purines.2-3 crosses in the protocol of the general analysis of urine can provide excessive enthusiasm for meat products, cheese, tomatoes, salinity and smoked products. And also taking certain medications: antibiotics, analgesics, antipyretic drugs, etc. These reasons are usually called short-term.
In children, the most common causes of precipitation of salts in the urine are unbalanced nutrition and dehydration. In rare cases, the cause of poor analysis is leukemia, dysbiosis, the development of gout or urolithiasis.
In a child under one year, the main factor is not a disease. Simply, the urinary system is not yet fully formed, and the kidneys are not able to completely process the salts, which are excreted in the urine. In older children, salts can also form due to urine acid diathesis( disruption of water-salt metabolism) and long stagnation of urine.
In pregnant women
In pregnancy, urate in the urine is diagnosed usually in the first trimester. Frequent reasons that there are many of them - malnutrition and dehydration( including after vomiting in toxicoses).
Another common cause is urinary tract infection, in particular pyelonephritis.
In adults, the most frequent reasons for which urate in the urine are found in large quantities - is a food with a high content of purines and taking medications. Also, the cause of increased urea concentration can be gout, leukemia and other blood diseases.
But the most impressive group of causes is occupied by renal diseases:
- nephroptosis( omission of the kidney);
- infectious diseases of the genitourinary system;
- blood clots in the renal arteries;
- nephritis( acute and chronic);
- chronic renal failure;
- is a uric acid diathesis.
The main treatment method that doctors use when urates are detected in the patient's urine is a medical diet. This is due to the fact that the cause of poor analysis is often harmful food, insufficient drinking regimen and taking medications. At the initial stage of the problem, for the prevention of urolithiasis, prescribe and drug treatment. In this case, the diet is not excluded.
When the amount of uric acid salts in the patient's urine is oversized, the time of medications comes. Their main task is to adjust the outflow of urine, break salt crystals and dissolve in water.
For this purpose:
- natural diuretics( herbs and herbal preparations);
- "Blamaren"( neutralizes the acidic environment in urine, so that the urate dissolves);
- "Allopurinol"( reduces the amount of uric acid and promotes the dissolution of salt deposits);
- "Asparks"( softly removes potassium-sodium salts from the body) and other drugs.
Therapeutic diet is the first step to be taken with urate in the urine. In many cases, a two-week diet is enough to adjust the composition of urine and bring the tests back to normal.
The urine diet in urine is based on two basic rules. This is a full-fledged drinking regime( not less than 1.5 liters of clean water per day) and a menu of products with low purine content.
This means that if urates are increased, then the fatty fish and meat, smoked products, sausages and sausages, cocoa and chocolate, canned food and even saturated broths( meat and vegetable) will be deleted from the diet. It is required to seriously limit the diet of legumes( especially lentils), lean fish, sorrel and spinach, salty, spicy and spicy dishes.
You must include in the menu:
- products rich in vitamins A and B( orange-red fruits and vegetables, cereals, eggs);
- milk and sour milk;
- products containing potassium( dried apricots, bran, potatoes, bananas);
- eggplant, pumpkin and zucchini;
- citrus fruits.
When the presence of urate in the urine is only at the level of crystals, a diet in combination with medications will completely get rid of the problem. The course is from several weeks to several months. But if they found that the salt deposits began to turn into stones, a more serious examination would be required, and if necessary, laser treatment or surgery.