Deafness is considered an abnormal condition, which is accompanied by a loss of acuity. This pathology can have an innate or acquired character and appears under the influence of various factors. In any case, the appearance of symptoms of the disease should be an occasion for immediate consultation of an ENT doctor.
Deafness means total or partial loss of hearing. In healthy people, the range of sound perception is 0-20 dB.Hearing loss is measured on such a scale:
- light degree - at 25-39 dB people can not hear a whisper;
- medium degree - at the level of 40-69 dB the patient does not hear spoken language;
- heavy degree - at 70-94 dB can not hear a cry.
The photo shows the thresholds of hearing sounds with varying degrees of hearing loss
All causes of deafness are divided into two categories - congenital and acquired. The first group includes hereditary factors. Also complications during pregnancy and childbirth may play a role.
Acquired reasons provoke the development of deafness at any age. This category of factors includes the following:
- some infectious pathologies - meningitis, parotitis, measles;
- chronic infection of the ears, which is accompanied by the release of pus, blood, sulfur;
- application of ototoxic drugs;
- otitis media - accompanied by accumulation of fluid in the ear;
- traumatic injury to the ears or head;
- impact of strong noise;
- age changes - in this case, hearing loss is due to degenerative damage to sensory cells;
- excess amount of sulfur or penetration of foreign objects into the outer passage - such deterioration of hearing is usually of moderate nature and easily amenable to correction;
- chronic form of otitis media - is most often observed in children.
Deterioration of hearing can progress gradually, but sometimes such manifestations occur suddenly. Most often this condition is accompanied by the following manifestations:
- hearing loss;
- pain in the ears;
- sensation of a foreign object in the ear - this sign may be due to the presence of sulfur or the accumulation of fluid.
To make an accurate diagnosis, you should consult an otolaryngologist. The specialist should study the symptoms of the disease and conduct an examination. Due to these manipulations, the physician should identify the following:
- problem localization;
- degree of hearing loss;
- causes hearing impairment.
To evaluate hearing, the following techniques are commonly used:
- test of Schwabach;
To assess the state of internal structures, computer and magnetic resonance imaging can be performed.
Acute forms of pathology require treatment in a hospital. In this case, the patient is hospitalized in the ENT department and performs emergency therapy. As a rule, it takes 4-6 days. At this stage, intramuscular and parenteral administration of drugs is used. In parallel, doctors prescribe studies that will help to identify the causes of the disease and assess its severity.
Drug therapy for deafness implies the use of such drugs:
- Nootropic drugs - glycine, pyracetam. With their help, it is possible to improve blood circulation in the brain and in the region of the auditory analyzer. Such drugs accelerate the process of recovery of cells of the inner ear and nerve fibers.
- Group B vitamins - thiamine, pyridoxine. These substances contribute to the improvement of nerve conduction. With their help, it is possible to optimize the work of the auditory branch entering the facial nerve.
- Antibacterial agents - cefaxime, azithrox. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - nurofen, ketonal - can also be used. All these tools are used if the cause of hearing loss is purulent otitis or other bacterial pathologies.
- Antihistamines and decongestants - furosemide, zirtek. These drugs help to eliminate swelling and reduce the synthesis of transudate in inflammation of the ear.
To increase the severity of hearing and get rid of deafness, many non-drug methods are used. They include the following:
- Physiotherapy - phonophoresis, electrophoresis, microcurrents, laser treatment, acupuncture. Thanks to such procedures, it is possible to improve metabolic processes and blood circulation, purify blood, stimulate the functioning of the nervous system.
- Ear blowing on Politzer. This method is used if the loss of hearing is associated with eustachyte, middle or internal otitis media, barotrauma.
- Massage, performing special exercises and breathing exercises. Long courses of such influences help to improve blood circulation, restore the state of the tympanic membrane and improve the functioning of the entire auditory organ.
- Hyperbaric oxygenation. Such therapy implies inhalation of elevated oxygen concentrations. Thanks to this, it is possible to improve blood circulation in the region of the inner ear and brain.
Operation, implantation of
If the pathology is caused by a malfunction of the auditory ossicles, a prosthetic repair operation is performed. In this case, they are replaced by artificial analogues. As a consequence, the mobility of the bones increases, which leads to improved hearing.
If pathology is associated with damage to the tympanic membrane, perform myringoplasty. In this case, the affected part of the organ of hearing is changed to artificial.
In many forms of the pathology, the auditory analyzer can only be restored by hearing aid. Thanks to this operation, a person has the opportunity to work and communicate with other people. In this case, the specialist quickly selects the device using various tests and audiometry.
However, in complicated cases operative hearing aid is required. To do this, implants are used for the inner or middle ear, brainstem, bone conduction. The essence of this procedure is the introduction of electrodes into the inner ear. In this case, it is possible to act on the auditory nerve, transmitting signals to the brain for processing.
If the cause of deafness lies in otitis or other infectious pathologies, you can be treated with folk remedies. But before using them, you should always consult a doctor. So, the most useful recipes include the following:
- Mix olive oil with propolis tincture in a 4: 1 ratio. All ingredients shake, then moisten in this liquid turundas and place in your ears before going to bed. Such treatment continues for 12 days.
- To the glass of pine nuts add the same amount of vodka and leave for 40 days to insist. A means to strain and consume 10 drops after a meal. It is recommended to do it twice a day for at least a month.
- Dishes with a capacity of 0.2 liters per quarter fill with crushed anise fruits, then top up with rosehip oil. Leave for 21 days and inject 3 drops into the ears before going to bed.
- Grind a clove of garlic, mix with 3 drops of camphor oil and moisten with turun. Place in the ear until burning occurs. Use once a day for 2 weeks.
- Mix a large spoonful of hop cones with 250 ml of boiling water. Take twice a day for 100 ml. This treatment lasts a month.
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To prevent the development of deafness, you need to pay due attention to preventive measures. These include the following:
- vaccination against childhood diseases - mumps, meningitis, measles;
- immunization of women against rubella;
- screening during pregnancy for infections;
- timely screening of newborns who are at risk;
- use of ototoxic agents only as directed by a physician;
- reduces the impact of loud sounds on the human hearing system.
Hearing loss is considered a very serious condition, which greatly impairs the quality of life and prevents its social activity. To avoid such consequences, it is necessary to treat all ear diseases in a timely manner. At the slightest decrease in hearing, you should immediately consult a doctor.