Creatinine is the product of a creatine-phosphate reaction. This substance involved in the energy metabolism of tissues is formed in the muscles and partially released into the circulatory system. It is excreted from the body with urine.
Violation of creatinine exchange is a violation of kidney function. A high degree of creatinine in the blood - a sign of renal insufficiency of different stages, as well as hormonal disorders, diseases of various organs.
To determine the state of the creatinine, a special biochemical analysis of the urine of
is performed. When is this analysis being prescribed?
Blood test for creatinine is one of the most common types of diagnosis that is prescribed by a doctor in order to clarify the nature and causes of disorders in the kidney and muscle system.
Blood test for determination of creatine level is necessary if :
- has indications indicating an increase in the amount of creatinine;
- examines a person who has expressed a desire to become a kidney donor;
- is diagnosed with urolithiasis, pathology of the muscular system or kidney;
- determines the required dose of the drug with a toxic effect, which is excreted from the body by the kidneys.
If the creatinine concentration increases, the following symptoms are observed: shortness of breath, aching pain or a feeling of heaviness in the lumbar region, fatigue, confusion, a feeling of severe exhaustion.
Creatinine in the blood - what is it?
What does creatinine say, and what is it? This substance is considered one of the final products in the body directly protein metabolism, which allows you to determine the state of the muscular system and kidneys of a person.
Creatinine is one of the elements of residual nitrogen. In turn, residual nitrogen is a collection of non-protein substances in the blood that contain nitrogen. It promotes the withdrawal through the kidneys from the body of urea, ammonia, uric acid. It is by the level of creatinine in the blood( and other components of residual nitrogen) that the status of the excretory function of human kidneys is judged.
Creatinine norm in males and females
The rate of creatinine in the blood depends on sex and age, and the level, in addition to kidney activity, is on the physique( accumulation of muscle mass) and food preferences. The creatinine of a male body should almost always be higher than that of women of a similar age group.
- Child from 0 to 1 year 3.0 - 11.0
- For children from one year to 7 years old 2,0 - 5,0
- Children and teenagers 7-14 years old 3,0 - 8,0
- Boys and girls 15-16 years 5,0 - 11,0
- Men 8,4 - 13,6
- Women 6,6 - 11,7
Other units of measurement are used in the analysis - micromol per liter( μmol / l).Then the values in the range from 44.0 to 97.0 μmol / l are considered the norm in women, and from 44.0 to 115.0 μmol / liter for men.
Causes of elevated creatinine
What does this mean? If we consider the main reasons why creatinine in the blood is elevated in men or women, then among them we can distinguish:
- Kidney disorders , which is the result of absolutely any kidney disease, for example, chronic glomerulonephritis, chronic pyelonephritis, polycystic kidney, etc.
- Destruction muscle tissue, necrosis, gangrene.
- Providing an increase in creatinine in the blood can result in extensive musculature damage in injuries or burns of .
- Loss of fluid , dehydration.
- Hyperthyroidism is a disease in which muscle tissue begins to disintegrate due to increased production of thyroid hormones.
- Blood circulation disorders ( heart failure) with insufficient blood pressure in the glomerulus of the kidneys, which reduces the filtration of primary urine in them( glomerular filtration) and the excretion of creatinine.
- Radiation sickness - due to the action of ionizing radiation, a gradual destruction of all cells of the body, including muscle cells, occurs.
If the blood test reveals an increase in the level of creatinine, first of all it is necessary to repeat it, because from a laboratory error no one is insured. In the case of a repeated deviation from the norm, the doctor prescribes an additional examination, and then treatment, which, as a rule, is aimed at restoring the kidney function.
What does this mean? First and foremost, the increase in creatinine in the blood may be the result of an unbalanced diet, in which there is a large amount of protein. In this case, the synthesis of creatine phosphate is activated, which leads automatically and to an increase in creatinine. This is typical for bodybuilders, because they must consume large amounts of protein to build muscle.
In adults who do not exercise, the increase in creatinine above the norm can be caused by the following physiological factors :
- intense physical activity;
- abundant internal bleeding;
- taking certain medications;
- damage to muscle tissue caused by a disease or injury;
- dehydration( with a lack of fluid, the concentration of certain substances, including creatinine, in the blood begins to increase);
- pregnancy is a "test" for the whole organism, including musculature and kidneys, so the increase in creatinine in this case happens often.
- intestinal obstruction and obstruction of the urinary canals( if creatinine does not leave the body naturally, it begins to accumulate in the blood).
In all these cases, the creatinine in the blood is elevated, as a rule, uncritically. When adjusting the diet, stopping medication, normalizing the weight, "everything returns to normal."
Ground clearance - what does this mean?
Clearance - the ability of organs to purify blood from specific substances. When it comes to the clearance of creatinine, it means the ability of the kidneys to remove this substance completely from the blood. The kidney function can be assessed by the rate of blood purification from creatinine and inulin. Inulin is used for scientific purposes, and creatinine is used in medical practice, because of stable concentrations in the blood and urine.
This is determined by its concentration in the urine per day, while the patient during this time collects urine in one bowl. Now more often only a single biochemical analysis is used to determine the concentration of creatinine in the blood, and to calculate the clearance there is a special formula that takes into account the weight and age of the subject.
Low clearance indicates a decrease in glomerular filtration in the development of renal failure.
With a high creatinine content in the blood, the patient is most often diagnosed with kidney damage. Recognize them can be on the following manifestations:
- Violation in urination. And the patient can develop as a diuresis( urine in general ceases to be excreted from the body), and polyuria, more than 2 liters of urine is excreted within 24 hours.
- In the lower back, there are specific pain sensations in the lower back.
- Increased blood pressure appears.
- Swelling is observed.
Biochemical blood test shows not only high creatinine, but also a high content of urea or other constituent parts of residual nitrogen.
How to reduce the level of creatinine in the blood?
Remember that the first thing you should consult with your doctor. Only after a person is fully examined, it will be possible to talk about specific recommendations that will help reduce the concentration of creatinine.
In cases of significant increase in creatinine, drugs can be prescribed that help normalize the process of protein breakdown( ketosteril, levesfan, lespinefril).If the biochemical blood test indicates a slight increase in creatinine, while there are no symptoms that are alarming, you need to reconsider your lifestyle and adjust your diet.
It is also necessary to correct lifestyle and physical activity. They must be brought into line with the actual capabilities of the body. If the pathological causes of increased creatinine is not detected and the only option for this condition are excessive physical exertion, they are minimized.
Increased level of creatinine in the blood can be reduced quickly and easily, normalizing the diet in qualitative and quantitative terms. For this you need to eat more:
- of citrus fruits;
- of barley.
At the same time, limit the use of:
- protein food;
- dried fruit;
- sugar( including the one contained in the finished products).
It will not be superfluous and correction of physical activity. It must correspond to the actual capabilities of the body.