A person is arranged so that he is susceptible to many diseases. One of the groups has a parasitic nature of origin. Bovine or unarmed tapeworm( tapeworm, tapeworm) is one of the largest helminths that infects cattle and humans( photo - the structure of the parasite).The disease that causes this parasite, is called "shadowarhinhos"( see video of the bull chain).This disease is quite old, the mention and description of helminth is attributed to the end of the XVIII century. And in the middle of the XX century scientists J. Strom and F. Talyzin decided to consciously become infected, after which they carefully observed the signs of a shadowarhynchus and recorded them in detail.
The body of the worm is ribbon-shaped, flat. It consists of a head( scolex) with attachments, a neck and a sequence of segments - strobila( video - the structure of a bovine chain) in the photo are clearly visible - the head and proglottids).The length of the helminth is more than four meters( the video shows how huge its length is).In a human, one bull tsenen often parasitizes, but if several( multiple invasion) appear, the body size is usually reduced to 60-70 cm.
The strobila of an adult worm, a bovine tapeworm, consists of a large number of segments( proglottid), the number of which reaches one or two thousand. When the proglottids ripen, they break away from the body and begin to move. So they come out of the rectum outward. Another way of getting into the external environment is passive, along with feces.
Each segment has a uterus with branches containing up to 175,000 eggs. Eggs of bovine chainle are oval-round, their shell is colorless and transparent. Inside the eggs there is oncosphere( or embryo), which has three pairs of hooks. When moving the joint or after its destruction in the external environment, eggs are allocated. Then their shell disintegrates, there remains one oncosphere of the bovine chain, which under the influence of gastric and intestinal juice in the body is also released from the shell.
Life cycle of bovine chain
For the development of an unarmed chain, two hosts are necessary( photo 2 - helminth life cycle).An adult individual parasitizes only in the human body, and as an intermediate host, cattle, yaks, buffaloes, saigas act. With a watering place, with grass or hay, the animal swallows eggs, which is given by a person with a shadowy arthritis, and becomes infected. From the destroyed shell in the intestine leaves the larva, penetrates into the blood vessels and settles in the muscles. There, it turns into a Finn( cysticerc) - an oval milk-white vial with a head of the larva. Meat becomes infected, finnish( see photo - bovine tapeworm in meat, video - meat with larvae).
If a person consumes raw finnish meat( or, according to the tradition of the northern people, the raw brain of a reindeer), then he becomes infected with tenierhinchosis, and his ribbon worm settles in his body( see the photo on the last stage of the helminth life cycle and the video of what bull bullshit looks like).Getting inside, Finns are attached to the intestines by suckers, the growth of the parasite begins, which in 3 months turns into an adult( photo - bovine tapeworm in the intestine).
Symptoms of arthrosis
Studies show that the most frequent symptom of infection with bovine sprouting is the crawling of segments from the anus. Itch feels in the anal area, crawling is felt. Also, with shadowyarnhoza, a person may have abdominal pain( indeterminate localization, paroxysmal nature), nausea, vomiting or urges to it, jumps from excessive appetite to total reluctance are. There is weakness, fatigue, insomnia, it hurts and dizzy, a chair gets upset. There are also allergic reactions, tk. Bovine tapeworm releases toxins, waste products and poisons the body.
Infection with a bulbar can sometimes be accompanied by anemia, palpitations, tinnitus, nosebleeds, dyspnoea. The course of a teniarinchosis is sometimes complicated by intestinal obstruction, appendicitis, cholecystitis, ingestion of proglottids into the respiratory tract, premature births, miscarriages.
The flow of shadeiarhynchiasis in children is more acute. The smaller the age of a child infected with a flat worm, the harder it takes the disease. Symptoms also look like: pain syndrome, stool disorder, sleep disorder, irritability, hives, cuffing, and signs of hypovitaminosis B1.Possible intestinal obstruction.
Methods for detecting bovine chain
An effective method of initial diagnosis is the examination of a person with a man's shadowyarnhosis. The patient must confirm that he ate raw or poorly thermally processed meat. The indisputable proof is the crawling of the segments from the anus, which should also be mentioned for the infected( a sample of this proglottid should be examined in the laboratory).
Adult bovine tapeworm begins to lay eggs only three months after falling into the final host. In connection with this, the first time is used to diagnose shtayearhinosis according to the results of blood tests. This method is the most informative.
- A general blood test provides an opportunity to see an increased level of eosinophils and anemia;
- Hemoscanning determines the species of helminths in the human body, reveals their presence;
- Serological blood test allows you to evaluate the performance of the immune system and track the dynamics of the disease. The presence of antigens - parasites, toxic products of their vital activity, and antibodies to them is established. There are several variants of serological analysis: ELISA( the most common method, it can determine the number of worms), RAL, RSK, RIF, RNGA.The only downside is the need to re-pass the analysis after a certain period of time;
- PCR determines the presence of helminth DNA or RNA, but does not show their number.
After three months from the onset of infection with bulbar, you can do a feces or scrape. In this way, eggs and segments of the helminth are found.
Teniarinhoz may be an indication for an X-ray examination, especially if it is accompanied by sharp pains in the abdomen.
Treatment of arthrosis
When the infection occurs, the doctor prescribes a treatment regimen. Despite the fact that the patient is usually not hospitalized, but treated at home, all methods used to remove the bull-calf should be consistent with the doctor.
Maintaining a certain diet is important( for example, you can not drink milk, coffee, alcohol, carbonated drinks, eat chocolate, fruits, legumes, berries, some vegetables, fried, hot, smoked, etc.).
The two main medicines used in the treatment are Nichlosamide and Praziquantel. As long as there are signs of the presence of a worm in the person( proglottids of the bovine tapeworm appear, eggs are found), treatment should be performed.
Bovine chain disease prevention
To prevent infection with bovine chain, there are a number of recommendations:
- It is necessary to take care of pets properly, to ensure that human feces do not come into contact with them;
- Animals should be treated periodically from helminths;
- The meat that you buy must necessarily pass a preliminary veterinary check( see a video about how the shop sold infected meat);
- You can not try and eat raw meat( the photo shows what the finnish meat looks like);
- Larvae of bovine tapeworm perish at a temperature of 80 ° C.Determine the temperature inside the cooking piece of meat will help a special thermometer;
- It is necessary to use a separate cutting board and a knife for raw meat. After cooking, everything must be thoroughly washed.
Compliance with such simple rules will significantly reduce the risk of arthritis.