A differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach is called a malignant tumor, characterized by the appearance of metastases in the early stages of the disease. This is the fourth most frequent cancer disease( 20% of all carcinomas).The disease can be caused by various diseases( Menetries disease, chronic ulcer, chronic pancreatitis, atrophic gastritis), bad habits( smoking, alcohol) and hereditary factors. Symptoms of the disease are vomiting, changes in taste, increased salivation, weight loss, stomach pain, nausea, fatigue, the presence of blood in the feces. To detect adenocarcinoma, doctors perform blood tests, urine and feces, biopsy, endoscopic examinations, radiography, computed tomography and ultrasound of the stomach. The main method of treating the disease is gastrectomy. Depending on the location of the tumor, excision of either the entire stomach or one of its parts is performed. As additional preoperative and postoperative techniques, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are widely used. Also modern minimally invasive techniques, such as laparoscopy and tomotherapy, are used. The degree of differentiation of adenocarcinoma can be low, moderate, high, and also undifferentiated. The higher the differentiation, the better. With the help of correct classification, a detailed picture can be made of the type, size and rate of tumor growth, as well as the likelihood of developing metastases.
Low-grade adenocarcinoma of the stomach
Low-grade adenocarcinoma of the stomach is a dangerous malignant formation that develops from the glandular epithelium of various organs. With a low differentiation of the tumor, its rapid and aggressive growth is observed. In the case of the localization of the tumor in the cardiac part of the stomach, it is possible that the food passes through the esophagus. Tumor cells have a primitive structure, which makes it difficult to diagnose the disease. It is often necessary to distinguish the disease from sarcoma, lymphoma or leukemia infiltrate. The rate of development of metastases is extremely high. Already at the initial stages they can affect adjacent organs. Therefore, early diagnosis of this tumor is especially important.
Moderately differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma
Moderately differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma is an intermediate type of tumor. It has no distinctive features, changes in tissues are moderate. Patient cells are characterized by a fairly clear polymorphism and differ little from healthy ones. Moderate adenocarcinoma is less dangerous than low and undifferentiated, but more dangerous than highly differentiated. With moderate adenocarcinoma, there is a risk of developing possible complications and pathologies. With the further development of the disease, the body becomes infected with metastases, which greatly reduces the probability of successful treatment.
Highly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach
The highly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach, in comparison with other forms, characterizes a slower and less aggressive growth. With such cancer, tumor cells are similar to healthy ones, however their nuclei are somewhat larger. The tumor has a low level of malignancy. But it should be noted that it is quite difficult to diagnose a highly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The disease usually affects the elderly. The prognosis for this type of tumor is more favorable than for a low-grade one. It is based on a five-year survival rate, which depends on the size and depth of the tumor, on the presence of concomitant factors and, of course, on metastases.
Undifferentiated gastric carcinoma
The most dangerous is undifferentiated gastric carcinoma. It is characterized by a high level of atypicality of tumor cells. This form is distinguished by rapid growth and early spread of metastases. The probability of metastasis in the early stages is about 75%.During the development of carcinoma occurs its deep penetration into the walls of the stomach. With undifferentiated carcinoma, there is a "loose" type of small cells that form chains, strands and loose masses. The disease affects both the elderly and young people. By the degree of malignancy, undifferentiated carcinoma significantly outstrips other species. The probability of relapse is very high, and the prognosis is usually unfavorable.