According to the reports of the World Health Organization, in the modern world a significant part of diseases is associated with cancer, among which there is also stomach cancer. How to identify this disease yourself? How is stomach cancer diagnosed by professional medics? What methods are used to detect gastric cancer? Answers to these and other questions can be found in this article, which will deal with diagnosis and treatment options for stomach cancer.
Diagnosis of stomach cancer
Diagnosis is a system of measures aimed at establishing a diagnosis, conclusions about the disease and the condition of the patient. In oncology, in addition to confirming the diagnosis itself, the neglect of the disease is determined, that is, whether there are metastases in the body.
A positive outcome of treatment in the early stages can be achieved in 6-8 cases out of 10, in subsequent stages this value drops by 5-6 times, so it is important to carry out an early diagnosis of stomach cancer. At this stage, the patient feels very difficult to determine the presence of the disease, and therefore clinically difficult to determine. In some countries, particularly in Japan, mass screening of the population has become popular, as a result, a diagnosis of stomach cancer can be established even at an early stage.
Diagnosis of stomach cancer can be carried out in various ways. To date, the methods of diagnosing stomach cancer include:
- clinical, in which the doctor conducts an examination of the patient and finds out the symptoms on the basis of his complaints, taking into account the medical history from the patient's card;
- instrumental, which requires various medical procedures to investigate a pathological focus( fibrogastroscopy, radiography, positron emission tomography( PET), gastric cancer screening, etc.);
- laboratory, based on a laboratory study of patient tests.
The clinical method allows the doctor to presume the patient's diagnosis based on an anamnesis, i.e.questioning the patient about his feelings and lifestyle.
Factors leading to the disease:
- addiction to bad habits( alcohol, smoking);
- power failure;
- stress and nerve disorders;
- presence of chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract( GIT).
After clinical, instrumental and laboratory are used. In particular, the laboratory involves the collection of blood for analysis. How to diagnose stomach cancer based on this analysis? In the general analysis of the patient's blood, an elevated level of erythrocyte sedimentation rate( ESR) and leukocyte counts should be observed against the background of a decrease in the number of red blood cells and the level of hemoglobin.
Other laboratory studies are associated with the use of the instrumental method, here include the processes of sampling gastric juice, samples of diseased and healthy GIT tissues with the help of medical devices. In addition, this group includes examination of the patient with devices that do not create discomfort: X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging( MRI), ultrasound( ultrasound), etc. This allows you to know the extent of the area of the lesion.
How to detect gastric cancer yourself?
The diagnosis of stomach cancer can be made using medical equipment. But is it possible to identify it yourself? How to recognize stomach cancer in yourself or your loved ones?
Any oncological disease causes a strong intoxication of the body, resulting from the growth and development of atypical cells, and therefore the signs may be similar to the general poisoning of the body. Thus, to pay a visit to a doctor and check your body definitely costs with:
- causeless weight loss;
- pain and abdominal pain in the area above the navel;
- lack of appetite;
- heartburn, indigestion, fast saturation with a small intake of food;
- nausea, vomiting( possibly with blood).
Most of these features are common to many common gastrointestinal diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to determine precisely the cause of discomfort, and this recognition capability gives a differential approach to diagnosis.
Differential diagnosis of stomach cancer
It is very important to put a differential diagnosis at the initial stage of the examination. He will allow to confirm or deny the diagnosis, on the basis of which it will be possible to choose a further method of treatment.
Diseases, the symptoms of which are similar to the early stages of oncology, include so-called precancerous diseases: chronic atrophic gastritis, stomach ulcer, benign stomach tumors( leiomyoma, xanthoma, etc.).Also worth paying attention to tuberculosis and syphilis.
The instrumental variant of diagnosis( usually radiologic and endoscopic examination with biopsy) is applied here in combination with laboratory methods( an expanded blood test).One of the most effective ways of differential diagnosis of gastric cancer - examination with the aiming gastrobiopsy. Biopsy in stomach cancer provides samples of affected tissues and allows an analysis for the presence of specific cells in them. After the disease is diagnosed, you need to choose the type and tactics of its treatment.
Treatment of stomach cancer
The diagnosis is set - stomach cancer. How to determine the strategy for further treatment? When choosing a treatment strategy, consider such factors:
There are two treatment regimens:
- radical, used in the early stages of the disease;
- palliative, which is used in the later stages, when the lethal outcome, unfortunately, is only a matter of time.
There are 4 directions of therapy:
1. Surgical. In the early stages, endoscopy is used( removal of polyps through the esophagus).In the later stages, resection of the stomach is recommended( partial or complete removal and replacement of an organ from the tissue of the small intestine).This is the most effective method used in foreign practice for more than half a century.
2. Chemotherapy. Elimination of abnormal cells by means of a special medication that enters the body via a vein via a dropper. As an independent option - ineffective, and therefore used in complex therapy.
3. Radiation therapy. Use of radioactive radiation to control atypical cells. This method is used in conjunction with other methods.
4. Auxiliary therapy. A set of measures designed to alleviate the patient's pain with the possibility of prolonging his life.
With the fact that diseases of this type are practically synonymous with a sentence for many, one should not despair ahead of time. Studies confirm that a positive attitude is precisely what can significantly improve the effectiveness of therapy.
Despite the complexity of the cure, the chance of a positive outcome remains always. As you know, science does not stand still, and every day scientists are in search of a solution that will give a hope for life, albeit with some limitations.