Functional dyspepsia in children and infants: types, symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment

Dyspepsia is a disease that affects the healthy functioning of the digestive system in children and causes unpleasant symptoms, including nausea, intestinal distress, vomiting and deterioration in the overall condition of the baby.

Diagnosis of this ailment in children is to identify the root cause of dyspepsia and its further elimination.

The prevalence of this symptom complex is quite wide. Dyspepsia occurs from 15% to 40% of children. The issue of studying this disease is not only the competence of the gastroenterologist, but also of other doctors.

This is explained by the fact that the frequency of dyspepsia in children depends on the anatomical and physiological characteristics, as well as on the work of the nervous system and metabolism.

Classification of

Dyspepsia in children can be divided into two main forms: toxic and simple.

At a toxic form in small patients, metabolism is broken and toxins are poisoned. This form very often develops together with ARVI or otitis media. A simple type of dyspepsia is accompanied by a disorder in the digestive tract.

Separately, according to the nature of the disorder, the following forms of dyspepsia in children are distinguished:

  1. Functional .With functional dyspepsia in children, general gastrointestinal function is impaired. Very often, with gastroenterological research, this ailment is not detected.
  2. Putrid. This type of dyspepsia is caused by the ingestion of a small patient with an excessive amount of proteins. Elements of the breakdown of proteins are rapidly absorbed into the intestinal walls and into the blood. In this case, children develop severe diarrhea, nausea and frequent vomiting.
  3. Fermentation. Most often caused by surplus carbohydrates in the body, which is due to improper feeding of the child. The baby suffers from severe diarrhea.
  4. Physiological. This type of dyspepsia is also called a transition catarrh. This condition occurs in newborns, about 3-4 days after birth. Feces are liquid, non-uniform. This chair is displayed for 2-4 days.
  5. Steatorey. This kind of dyspepsia occurs when small children have too many fatty foods. The feces of the child become very greasy and sticky at the same time, washed off from the diaper badly.

Causes of pathology

Dyspepsia in children can be triggered by a variety of reasons, some of them are nutritional - related.

Among them:

  • irregular meals of the child;
  • changing the diet;
  • power to dry;
  • malnutrition and overeating;
  • abuse of fatty, pickled, spicy foods and dishes.

In the case of children, dyspepsia often occurs on the psychoemotional background:

  • overwork during training;
  • frequent travel and change of environment;
  • cruelty in the family;
  • frequent quarrels between parents in front of the child;
  • children's fears and much more.

In infants, dyspepsia often occurs for nutritional reasons. Stomach babies are adapted only to one type of food, and its replacement can lead to significant abnormalities in GIT.

Very often the cause of dyspepsia is a sudden introduction of complementary foods or a gradual transition to an artificial feeding type.

All children are susceptible to dyspepsia, but weaker, premature babies, and also small patients suffering from any complicated illnesses suffer much more from an ailment:

  • rickets;
  • Allergies;
  • hypovitaminosis;
  • diathesis;
  • anemia;
  • hypotrophy and more.

Together with dyspepsia in small patients, giardiasis and helminthiases often occur, that is parasitic infestations.

Symptoms of

A simple type of dyspepsia in the vast majority of cases occurs in children of the first years of life. The precursors of the disease may be the following symptoms:

  • increased frequency of the stool;
  • frequent regurgitation;
  • loss of appetite, refusal to eat;
  • child restlessness.

Usually, after about 3 days, the frequency of stools in a baby reaches 6-7 times. According to the consistency, the stool becomes non-uniform, liquid, with impurities of mucus. Also in children, the following symptoms are noted:

  • regurgitation and vomiting;
  • bloating;
  • flatulence.

Intestinal colic disturbs children the most. In this case, before the act of defecation, the child becomes restless and fussy, cries. Body weight gain in a child stops due to the child's refusal to eat.

Usually dyspepsia of a simple type lasts for up to a week. Consequences may be thrush, intertrigo and stomatitis.

In children who are weakened, there can be a transformation of ordinary dyspepsia into a dangerous, toxic form. In this case, the child has the following symptoms:

  • indomitable, frequent vomiting;
  • fever, significant fever;
  • stool with a frequency of up to 15-20 times a day.

The stool becomes watery, with epithelial elements. The child loses a significant amount of fluid, due to diarrhea and vomiting. The following additional symptoms are observed:

  • dehydration;
  • weight loss;
  • sinking of the large fontanel;
  • facial features;
  • dryness of mucous membranes and skin;
  • convulsions.

In older children, functional dyspepsia is manifested by the following characteristic symptomatology:

  • pain after eating;
  • nausea, followed by vomiting;
  • rapid saturation;
  • sensation of overcrowding, overeating;
  • heartburn, burning in the chest area;
  • alternation of diarrhea and constipation;
  • sweating;
  • dizziness.

Diagnosis

Dyspepsia in children almost never differs by any special symptoms and it does not allow to diagnose without carrying out certain diagnostic measures.

The most important condition is the passage of differential diagnostics.

The following instrumental diagnostic methods can be assigned:

  • PHAGS;
  • fluoroscopy;
  • ultrasound;
  • study of the pH level.

Doctors also recommend that parents start a special diary, where meals will be celebrated, what exactly and when the child was eating, how many times the baby defecated during the day, and what was the consistency of the stool. Also in the diary, you can enter other symptoms and situations that have become stressful for the patient.

The records are kept for at least two weeks in a row. This allows you to identify the causes of the ailment and help the doctor to diagnose correctly.

When diagnosed, the doctor must take into account the facts that are typical for dyspepsia:

  • no increase in pain;
  • absence of nocturnal pain;
  • presence of other uncomfortable sensations( headaches, fatigue, drowsiness);The errors in the
  • .

Differential diagnosis is especially necessary in cases when children suffer from lactose insufficiency, dysbiosis, celiac disease, helminthiases and intestinal infections.

Also mandatory is the study of coprograms in children. This allows you to optimally quickly put an accurate diagnosis and begin treatment of a small patient.

Treatment of dyspepsia in young children

Light forms of dyspepsia do not require hospitalization of the baby. Usually, immediately after the examination and diagnosis, the doctor makes an appointment for therapy, which can be done at home. Also, when prescribing treatment, the doctor necessarily takes into account the cause that led to dyskinesia.

For example, if a young woman is injured as a result of overfeeding, the doctor assigns a temporary restriction of feeding or the replacement of some diurnal meals for warm water or herbal teas. One of the means that positively affects the baby's organism is dill-water.

If the baby is affected by low-quality mixtures, they should be replaced urgently, and the food should be stopped for a while. Babies may be assigned sorbents.

This is necessary in cases where the disease threatens to become toxic. Since the disease is almost always accompanied by a strong increase in gas formation, the doctor can prescribe the use of a gas pipe. The child's tummy can be easily massaged and warmed with a lukewarm diaper.

Prognosis and prevention

The prognosis for the recovery of the baby is almost always favorable. The main thing is to call the clinic on time to get medical help. With the right approach, the disease lasts for 5-7 days.

Prevention should be based on the correct, balanced nutrition of the child.

Diet and food intake should be clearly matched to the child's age. In no case is it worth it to feed the child with products uncharacteristic of his age. Follow the diet should be and mom, if the baby is on breastfeeding. The timing and sequence of the introduction of certain products in the baby's diet should be strictly observed.

Do not overfeed your baby. This can lead to functional dyspepsia. The amount of stress in a child's life should be reduced to a minimum. The kid also needs to rest for a sufficient amount of time. Rest should occur, according to the established regime.

Treat infectious and general-ailment ailments is timely. Strongly do not need to fight the symptoms yourself. If the child has signs of a disease, it is required to consult the pediatrician in the shortest possible time.

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