Representing one of the most common types of cardiac arrhythmia pathologies, sinus bradycardia is a pronounced reduction in the rhythm of the heartbeats. In this case, its detection is often accidental, with the passage of medical examinations and even absolutely healthy in terms of the presence of diseases people.
What does sinus bradycardia mean?
The main feature of this cardiac pathology can be considered the preservation of the natural pacemaker, which is a sinus node: the process of inducing electrical impulses produced by it, is reduced to a notable extent.
The frequency of cardiac contractions in this condition can be on the order of 30-45 beats per minute. At the same time, the norm is 60-100 heart beats per minute. Sinus bradycardia has a number of features of the course depending on the condition of the person and his age. Let us consider them in more detail.
Sinus bradycardia with blockage of anterior branch of the left bundle branch of the bundle( ECG results)
Specificity of the disease
Professional athletes who have significant physical exertion often have a high tone of the vagus nerve, and the frequency of heart contractions may slow them down under the influence of this. However, this condition does not have a serious negative impact on health.
For adults this condition may not be felt, sinus bradycardia can be detected only with instrumental examination. In particular, with the carotid sinus, the duration of the sinus pause is about 3 seconds for completely healthy people;In the presence of the same sinus bradycardia, it is usually longer and is about 5 seconds.
Symptoms and treatment of sinus bradycardia of the heart will tell the following video:
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The heart rate index for children is significantly higher than in an adult. For a month-old baby, it is about 140 beats per minute, by the year it is reduced to 100 strokes, and if this is much less than the specified rate, you should undergo a sinus bradycardia examination.
In childhood, two main types of this condition are distinguished:
- absolute bradycardia, which does not depend on external factors that vary with time;
- is relative, dependent on a number of factors affecting the child's condition.
The cause of this cardiac pathology in childhood is a hereditary predisposition, and if it was detected in one of the family members, it can be diagnosed in children. Additional reasons for the development of sinus bradycardia in children may be oxygen starvation during fetal development, as well as the occurrence of the so-called state of nuclear jaundice: in this case, there is a significant excess of the level of bilirubin in the blood with subsequent penetration into the brain tissue. At the same time, the brain becomes saturated with bilirubin, followed by a negative effect on the heart.
Age of more than one year is characterized by symptoms and the cause of this pathology as in adults, when an increased tone of the vagus nerve can provoke the occurrence of duodenal ulcer and stomach ulcer with the development of sinus bradycardia.
Symptoms of sinus bradycardia in children should be considered the following manifestations of the disease:
- general condition deterioration;
- persistent lethargy or drowsiness;
- fast fatigue even with a small amount of physical or psychological stress;
- tenderness in the chest;
- marked shortness of breath.
At an older age, children can complain of pain in the chest, poor health, and a complete examination is necessary in this case, since in the absence of appropriate treatment, it is possible to significantly deplete the heart wall until it completely ruptures, which is a dangerous fatal outcome.
In pregnancy, sinus bradycardia can be caused by both the general condition of the pregnant woman and the ever-increasing size of the uterus, which compresses all organs of the abdominal cavity and thoracic in particular. And since it is in this area that the vagus nerve is located, its clamping can lead to the pathological state under consideration. A more frequent case of cardiac pathology during pregnancy is a perceptible increase in heart rate, but in some cases there may be a reduction in the heart rate - bradycardia.
Since sinus bradycardia is not a life-threatening pathology for a pregnant woman, nor can it be a reason for its interruption, this condition does not require special treatment. But this applies only to those cases when the condition of the pregnant woman worsens in terms of overall well-being, for example, in the form of dizziness and worsening of the general condition.
However, during pregnancy, every woman is worried about the possibility of problems with the health of the unborn child, and revealing her bradycardia can be a reason for a more detailed study of the condition of the fetus.for this purpose, an additional Doppler study is prescribed.
It should be known that as such sinus bradycardia in the fetus can not be;at the stage of fetal development with the expressed and detected during a regular examination of a pregnant woman a pathological condition is possible only the occurrence of oxygen starvation of the fetus( hypoxia).To restore the normal state of the child, the doctor prescribes the use of special medications that, with the mother's blood, enter the child's body and help restore normal oxygen supply to the child.
If a fetus is hypoxic, a caesarean section is administered at a later date.
Classification of the disease
Depending on the manifestation, this pathological condition can be classified, and today several of its varieties are divided:
- absolute bradycardia - this condition can be detected by a cardiologist even without additional studies. To make a diagnosis, sinus bradycardia is enough to measure the patient's pulse;
- relative form implies the presence of the cause that caused this state;it can be a disease or a trauma. To the relative usually refers and sinus bradycardia in professional athletes;
- mild sinus bradycardia is most commonly seen in childhood and is accompanied by respiratory arrhythmia;
- with an extracardiac form of pathology, a pathological abnormality in the functioning of internal organs is often observed;
- toxic species is characterized by significant poisoning of the body;
- dosage form occurs with excessive drug addiction;
- the physiological form of the disease should not cause significant concern, since it does not pose a threat to health and life, this form may occur during hypothermia and even during sleep.
The variant of treatment of the considered pathology depends on the cause that caused this condition. There are several reasons for concern.
On the reasons for the diagnosis of sinus bradycardia read further.
The most common causes of this pathology include the following:
- hereditary predisposition;
- heart disease, for example, ischemic disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure;
- increased vagal tone;
- vascular disease;
- disruptions in the endocrine system;
- age changes;
- presence of craniocereberal trauma;
- infectious diseases.
It is also likely that there are several reasons for causing this state. It is these options will have the most severe manifestations.
For sinus bradycardia, the most obvious manifestation is a reduction in heart rate, which causes soreness in the chest, a feeling of dizziness, a general decline in strength, shortness of breath even with small amounts of exercise, the appearance of cold sweat.
If there is a physiological appearance of the bradycardia, then, as a rule, it has no pronounced external manifestations;it is often found in routine preventive examinations.
Types of diagnosis
Detection of the disease can be done by yourself. To do this, you need to calculate the number of heartbeats using the stopwatch. And the lowered figure will become a likely sign of developing sinus bradycardia with a constant rate of heart rate.
Also for more accurate diagnosis, the following methods are used:
- holding an ECG for sinus bradycardia;
- recording of electrocardiograms, which was conducted throughout the day - this method is the most accurate;
- may also require general studies, which include: general and biochemical blood tests, taking an analysis of thyroid hormones, ultrasound of the heart.
Since this pathological condition may not cause significant damage to the general condition and does not manifest itself in any way, treatment in this case may be absent.
Do not rely entirely on the treatment of sinus bradycardia folk remedies, but you can try it:
Therapeutic treatment is based on maintaining the body and the general condition of the patient. To do this, you should drink green tea, eat a bit of bitter chocolate - this will improve vitality, improve overall health.
With sinus bradycardia, a doctor after the examination prescribes medicines that help increase the number of heartbeats. These include simtomimetiki and choline blockers.
With the development of the medicinal form of the disease, a dose change of the medicines to be taken is prescribed, and in the case of a toxic form of the disease, drugs that bind toxic substances and remove them from the body should be taken.
The operation can be administered with a significant decrease in heart rate. During the intervention, a pacemaker is implanted, which maintains the optimal number of heartbeats.
The most effective preventive measures include maintaining a healthy and active lifestyle, avoiding excessive consumption of alcohol and nicotine, dosed use of medicines.
Regular preventive examinations will detect the disease even in the absence of symptoms.
Possible complications of
Complications of sinus bradycardia may be as follows:
- thinning of the heart wall followed by its rupture and death;
- occurrence of ischemic disease;
- occurrence of heart disease;
- disorders in the circulation of the heart;
- sudden cardiac arrest.
The most dangerous is the presence of heart disease in the occurrence of sinus bradycardia. If they are available, the patient may be disabled.
Also, an unfavorable prognosis can be made with a significant reduction in the number of heartbeats - less than 40 beats per minute. There may be a risk of sudden cardiac arrest.
The prognosis should be considered satisfactory in the timely detection of the pathology of appropriate treatment measures.
On what to do if caught the bradycardia in hypertension, see the following video: