Platelets are colorless and flat bodies that are produced in the red bone marrow and are responsible for clotting. With their help, and stops bleeding.
Platelets, in addition, heal and repair damaged tissue and, performing an angiotrophic function, feed the endothelium of blood vessels.
Elevated platelets in the blood in the medical language are called thrombocytosis. In this condition, the blood thickens and clots are easily formed, so this condition is dangerous by blockage of blood vessels. Thrombocytosis is not considered to be any increase in the number of platelets, but only that which significantly exceeds the norm and stays stable. Daily fluctuations caused by heavy physical exertion or small fluid intake are not considered a disease.
For what reasons are platelets raised in the blood, and what does this mean we will consider in detail in our material.
What is a platelet, and what is it for?
Platelets are not exactly cells, but postcell structures that circulate in the blood and live for two to ten days, after which they are disposed of by special cells of the spleen and liver. Formed platelets from megakaryocytes( giant cells of the bone marrow).They are devoid of nuclei and have a flat form, live only 7 to 10 days, constantly updated. Therefore, the process of processing old platelets and the production of new ones is a constant process in the body of a healthy person.
Their is the main task of - to form a thrombus to stop bleeding and to stimulate the regeneration( healing) of damaged tissues. Let's find out what it means if the elevated platelets in the blood of an adult are diagnosed and what to do in such a situation.
Platelet norm in the blood
The indicator, characterizing the platelet count , can be as follows:
- In an adult male and female, 180-400 g / l;
- The woman in the after-menus is 100-350 g / l;
- In women with pregnancy - 100-420 g / l;
- Children of the first days of life - 150-420 g / l;
- In infants - 150-350 g / l;
- Children after the year - 180-400 g / l.
Platelet level is normally subject to large daily fluctuations, as the lifespan of these cells is very low and does not exceed 10 days!
The cause of increased platelets in the blood
Why is the platelet count in the blood higher than normal, and what does it mean? The increased number of platelets in the blood causes an increase in thrombosis and clogging of blood vessels. This pathological condition is called thrombocytosis and is divided into two types - primary and secondary.
Primary occurs as a result of impaired activity of bone marrow cells, that is, the bone marrow( and the platelets are formed in it) produces too much blood platelets. Secondary thrombocytosis is caused by a variety of all kinds of factors, some of them are quite rare, others - more often.
The physiological causes of an increased number of platelets in the blood of the are:
- Physical overstrain;
- Increased adrenaline in the blood;
The possible pathological factors of in adults that cause an increased platelet count in the blood are most often the following:
- Infections: The first cause of high( up to 1000 thousand in microlitre) is thrombocytosis. The most frequent are bacterial( pneumonia, meningitis, tuberculosis), viral( hepatitis, encephalitis, gastroenteritis), parasites, fungi( candida, aspergillus).In this case, thrombocytosis is combined with an inflammatory reaction of the blood, eosinophilia( with parasitosis).
- Very often platelets are elevated in the blood after a previous operation or a transferred disease with an average intensity.
- Inflammations( eg, Kawasaki syndrome, sarcoidosis, collagenosis).
- Removal of the spleen, an organ that takes part in the utilization of old platelets, stores about 30% of the blood platelets in it.
- Significant tissue damage in pancreatitis or tissue necrosis.
- Tumors: lymphomas, hepato- and neuroblastomas.
- Autoimmune diseases( rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, sarcoidosis)
- Drugs( corticosteroids, adrenaline, epinephrine)
- Cirrhosis, polycystic kidney disease, osteomyelophybrosis.
- Iron deficiency in the body - anemia.
In general, there are a lot of reasons that contribute to increase of platelets. Therefore, it is impossible to unequivocally answer the question, with what all this is connected. The specialist needs to carry out other tests of the patient, as well as to study the patient's sickness card, to observe the current state of health.
How to lower the level of platelets?
First, you need to take a blood test again to rule out a mistake. If the high content of platelets in the blood is confirmed, the doctor will give you additional tests and examinations. Depending on the cause of increased platelets in the blood, the treatment will be different. For example, if the cause is an infection, getting rid of it should bring the platelets back to normal.
In patients with primary thrombocytosis , thrombotic prophylaxis is mediated by depressant platelet aggregation drugs:
- Aspirin. Because of the risk of bleeding, it is used in the protective coat( cardioform) and after eating;
- Dipyridamole, pentoxifylline, xanthinal nicotinate - further improve microcirculation;
- Clopidogrel, ticagrelor are specific antiplatelet agents in cardiology.
There are also more radical ways to lower the level of platelets in the blood. Here are the main ones:
- Interferon - immunostimulant.
- Hydroxyurea is an antitumor agent.
- Anticoagulants - Fraxiparin and Fragin, prevent blood clotting.
- Antiaggregants - pantoxifylline, quarantil, prevent the aggregation of blood platelets.
- Anagrelide, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase, slows the process of transformation of megakaryocytes into blood platelets.
- In rare cases - thrombocytopheresis. This procedure is the separation of blood flow with the removal of excess platelets from it.
If you are not talking about a critical or excessive increase in platelets, you can lower them with the help of proper nutrition. Moreover, even with the use of drugs, the diet has an important aspect.
To reduce the number of platelets, it is recommended:
- drink plenty of fluids, excluding carbonated;
- eliminate fried, spicy, fatty and alcohol;
- to reduce the share of animal and protein foods in the diet, except milk;
- include in the diet of celery, ginger, as well as a lot of fresh fruits and vegetables;
- include a lot of berries in the diet, especially sea buckthorn, dog rose, guelder rose, cherry, currant and raspberry.
Remember that all medicines, including aspirin, should only be used as directed by your doctor!