The disease occurs due to improper treatment, although the primary causes are infections and injuries. In adults, the disease occupies 1% of all other diseases. Such high rates are due to self-treatment of patients with different types of acute otitis.
The diagnosis is made while maintaining a persistent rupture( perforation) of the tympanic membrane, prolonged secretions from the ear. The latter are permanent or temporary.
Chronic form is diagnosed if otitis media lasts from four weeks. According to the ICD-10, chronic otitis media is labeled H65.
The three main types of localization are divided:
- of middle ear,
- of inner ear.
Connected with the auricle, external ear canal. It is limited and diffuse. The first is a furuncle. Appears due to mechanical damage to the skin. With weakened immunity, a small scratch is enough to trigger the infection mechanism.
Diffuse disease is associated with the penetration of pathogenic bacteria into adipose tissue. Is a companion of purulent otitis media of the middle ear. The disease is found in swimmers.
This part borders on the outer, separated from it by the tympanic membrane. The form is common. In chronic course, even during remission, the risk of exacerbation remains.
The hole can be located in the central part of the membrane. Then exacerbation occurs due to infections of the throat, nose, during swimming. If a violation of the integrity of the film occurred near the edge, a deafness is formed, enhanced excretions are noted.
Photo of an ear in a cut
Separation of clinical and morphological variants into various forms is conditional, but helps to define the scheme of treatment.
Always begins with a sharp form. There are severe pains, weakness of malaise, a feeling of pressure inside the ear. If you do not start antibiotic treatment in time, after a few days the eardrum is broken, the pus comes out, and the pain symptom decreases.
The transition from an acute form of purulent otitis to a chronic one is associated with several factors: the resistance of the pathogen to treatment, the reduction of resistance of the organism, violation of general and local protection, blood diseases, rickets, diabetes.
With this form, the integrity of the tympanic membrane is preserved. The pressure that arises is not so strong. The main difference of this form is absence of hearing impairment. This form is usually treated with usual ear drops with anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.
For this form, pain is not typical, but in chronic course the risk of hearing loss is high. The disease occurs in diseases of the respiratory tract, with violation of patency of the ear canal.
The mucus appears from the ear, and the fluid accumulates in the tympanic cavity. The patient complains of a feeling of overflow in the ear, a hearing disorder. The appearance is due to self-medication.
This is a disease of the middle ear. One of the signs is the perforation of the tympanic membrane. Bone structures are not affected, the auditory ossicles are preserved. The main symptoms are noises, discharge, hearing loss.
According to statistical data, the form is the cause of development of hearing loss in the USA in 30% of cases. Most patients should be examined for allergic reactions. It arises because of persistent impairment of the functions of the auditory tube.
In young children, hearing loss leads to persistent negative phenomena. In older children and adults, the prognosis is favorable.
This is an inflammation that affects the entire middle ear. The result is the formation of strands and adhesions. Because of this, the permeability of the auditory tube is impaired.
The reason may be even a curved nasal septum, tumors, diseases of ENT organs. There is a strong noise in the ears, there is a decrease in hearing, which eventually becomes more pronounced.
It is expressed by one-, two-sided deafness, sensation zalozhennosti. When yawning, blowing his nose, the hearing improves, but for a short time. The transition from acute to chronic forms is influenced by various factors.
The main feature of catarrhal otitis is the presence of a stable hole in the tympanic membrane, suppuration from the ear. The latter can stop, resume again.
Patients with chronic otitis have a recurrence of symptoms. Almost always, a person experiences pain in the depth of the ear, understands that there is a hearing disorder.
Symptoms of exacerbation
Common symptoms include:
- Gnoteca intensification,
- smelly smell from the mouth,
- development of pain on the second ear,
- pain in the teeth, temple,
- noise, feeling of fluid transfusion or congestion.
The photos show the points that will help reduce pain in otitis:
The effect on the body should be in three directions, according to which, and select the medication. They use:
The main methods of treatment are medical and surgical therapy.
Means the use of antibiotics, drops, medications. They stop the development of even a chronic form, secretions from the ear. There is a thorough cleaning before the procedure. Sometimes the blowing of funds in the form of a powder is appointed.
Antibiotics and anti-inflammatory steroid drugs are popular."Sofradex", "Garazon" are often appointed. The use of antibiotics is necessary to suppress the development of infection.
Pain sensations on the background of their reception become less pronounced. Such drops include "Neomycin", "Ofloxacin".When a staphylococcal medium is detected, a special toxoid is prescribed.
Features for children
Children are less likely to suffer from pain, therefore, when the first symptoms are recommended, an analgesic is recommended.
It is allowed to give drugs based on ibuprofen or paracetamol.
These antipyretics relieve pain.
Otipaks and Otyrelax are often prescribed for the treatment of children.
They not only relieve pain, but also inflammation.
Since the child's ear is arranged somewhat differently, doctors recommend that you give antihistamines for the removal of the edema, and in the nose to instill vasoconstrictors.
The chronic form develops if the disease that appeared for the first time was treated without the involvement of a physician. Therefore, with an exacerbation it is recommended to immediately make an appointment. Assigned drops with antibacterial or combined effect.
Surgical methods are aimed at restoring functions, as well as preventing further infection. The operation is prescribed for reconstructive, silencing or sanitizing purposes. Additionally assigned:
- cavitation sanitation and bone reconstruction,
Radical measures are aimed primarily at preserving the sound-conducting system.
If the audio receiving device is violated, it can also be restored.
Several methods are used for the chronic form:
- Make a decoction of bay leaf. One glass needs 5 pieces. Bring the mixture to a boil. Three spoons are used inside, and 10 drops are digested in the ear.
- Apply a plantain leaf or baked onion. Effective when the disease is external.
- Warming compress with alcohol solution. The cotton swab is wetted and applied to the auricle.
Physiotherapy, physical exercises
Physiotherapy can be performed and not during an exacerbation. It also increases the effectiveness of other methods. Used light therapy: infrared, ultraviolet light.
In addition, a laser is used. It works well for severe purulent processes.
Electrophoresis allows you to inject drugs under the influence of a weak electric current. The method delivers the medicine directly to the source of the infection.
To improve hearing or reduce the manifestation of chronic otitis media will help and some physical exercises. This is a variety of cheating cheeks or exercises from Chinese gymnastics.
With good immunity the consequences are not so pronounced.
Meningitis, cholesteatoma may develop. The latter leads to the closure of the auditory canal.
Among the consequences, the first place is deafness. Young children may begin to lag behind in development. Many complexes, including psychological ones, are being formed. Getting rid of the consequences is more difficult. Therefore, do not start otitis to chronic form.
Look at the video where the doctor will tell you and show what the consequences can be caused by chronic otitis media:
In infants, the resistance to resistance increases depending on the type of feeding. To a lesser extent, otitis patients are ill on breastfeeding. In older children and adults, adverse factors need to be eliminated as prevention:
- high prevalence of viral infections,
- sensitization of the body,
- decrease in general non-specific resistance associated with hypodynamia.
It is necessary to fight with foci of infection in the nose and nasopharynx to prevent the spread of the disease.