Bone cancer - this term is usually used to refer to malignant lesions of the human bone system. This disease can occur at almost any age, but still people are more susceptible to it up to 30 years.
Primary malignant tumors of the skeleton are often detected in children and adolescents, and in this case they are characterized by an aggressive course.
Characteristics of bone cancer
Bone oncology according to statistical research is the rarest form of malignant pathology in humans .Cancer of any of the bones in the human body can be primary or secondary.
The primary cancerous growth is said to occur when it starts directly from the bone cells. If a person has malignant neoplasms, there is always the risk of spreading hematogenous or lymphogenous pathway of cancer cells into the skeleton, that is, metastasis occurs and then it is a question of secondary bone oncology.
Cancer cells can grow from any bone tissue, that is, tumors are formed both from the bone itself, and from the cartilage or periosteum. Atypical cells begin to uncontrollably and quickly divide, and this leads to the formation of build-up, which gradually seizes and surrounding tissues. Bone cancer is divided into medicine according to the variant of its course.
At a younger age, the defeat of the bones of the lower extremities is more typical. Older people are more likely to grow cancerous hearth in the bones of the skull. There are more patients with bone pathology among men, especially this disease should beware of smokers with many years of experience.
What causes the development of pathology?
Oncology of the human osseous system is actively studied, but so far no unified theory of the development of this disease has been put forward. Scientists only identify several predisposing factors that are present in most patients who are registered for bone cancer. These factors include:
- Postponed trauma. Sometimes a cancerous growth on the bone is formed in that place of the skeleton, which was injured more than a decade ago.
- Effects on humans of single or periodic ionizing radiation in large doses.
- Genetic diseases. The probability of bone oncology is higher in people with retinoblastoma, Lee-Fraumeni syndrome, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome.
- Paget's disease. With this pathology, the mechanism of bone tissue restoration is disturbed and this leads to the appearance of various bone anomalies.
- Bone Marrow Transplant.
Secondary bone cancer occurs when metastases from breast tumors, lung tissue, prostate gland, less frequently from other internal organs.
Bone cancer is classified according to the localization of the malignant tumor. Each species has its own peculiarities of flow, which affects the choice of the method of therapy.
This type of malignant bone lesion is characterized by the most aggressive course. With Iwing sarcoma, mostly long tubular bones, their middle part, are affected. Less often, pathology is detected in the ribs, bones of the clavicle, scapula, pelvic bone structures, but in principle the Iwing's tumor can be localized in any part of the skeleton.
In the photo, the cancer tumor of Sarcoma Iwing, localized on the upper arm bones of
Most patients with this malignant lesion are adolescents from 10 to 15 years old, the disease is detected in both young children and in young people until about 30 years. After this age Iwing sarcoma is diagnosed extremely rarely. In detecting this type of bone oncology, in almost 90% of patients, metastases are detected.
Osteogenic sarcoma begins to form due to changes in bone elements, for this type of cancer in most cases is characterized by rapid development and earlier metastasis. Patients with osteosarcoma most of all( meaning bone oncology).
More often the pathology affects the bones of the lower extremities, perhaps the development of a tumor in the shoulder girdle, pelvic bones, shoulder. In children, the cancerous process is mainly localized in the areas of bone growth, as well as in the joints of the elbow and knee.
Osteogenic sarcoma can occur at any age, is more likely to cause this cancer in young people between 10 and 30 years old, and men are almost twice as likely to suffer from .Oncologists note that the growth of malignant cells often occurs during a period of intensive growth of the skeleton. Among young patients, there are more than those who are distinguished by high growth, acquired in a short period.
This type of tumor is rarely detected. Some scientists believe that the chondroma begins to develop from the remains of embryonic tissues. The main localization sites are the sacrum and the bones of the skull base.
Among patients with chondroma, there are more young people under the age of thirty. According to the histological structure, the node of the chondroma can be considered benign. But since this neoplasm lies in hard-to-reach places, all sorts of complications often arise and the likelihood of recurrence of the disease is also high. In connection with these features, the chondrum is now considered in many medical sources to be malignant tumors.
The basis of chondrosarcoma is cartilaginous tissue, with the tumor more often affecting the flat bone structures of the skeleton, less often the tubular bones. Chondrosarcomas are often detected in the tissues of the trachea and larynx, where small bones are affected.
The flow of this kind of tumor-like process can go in two ways. The first is considered favorable, with the tumor growing slowly, metastases appear only in the late stages. In the second variant of the course of the disease, the neoplasm grows rapidly and already at the first stages of its formation multiple metastases appear.
Chondrosarcomas are predominantly detected in people between the ages of 40 and 60, although this type of bone cancer can occur at any age.
Initially, fibrosarcoma is formed in deep-seated soft tissues, which include muscles, tendons, connective tissue membranes.
As the tumor progresses, the tumor also passes to the bone tissue. Women are susceptible to fibrosarcoma twice as often. In general, fibrosarcomas are formed on the legs, rarely in other parts of the body.
Malignant fibrotic histiocytoma
This type of cancer affects limbs, retroperitoneal space, trunk. Malignant fibrous bone histiocytoma is localized in the metaphysis of tubular bones, especially often the tumor is detected in the knee joint. Some patients suffer from Paget's disease. In most cases, bone cancer of this species is detected after fractures. The course of the disease is aggressive, metastasis develops rapidly and mainly affects the lung tissue.
Giant cell tumor
Another name for this type of osteoblastoklastoma tumor, it captures the terminal areas of bones and is characterized by sprouting into adjacent tissues. It is distinguished by a benign course, rarely causes metastases, but after its removal, repeated growths often occur on the same part of the body.
Multiple myelomas and lymphomas
The term myeloma refers to the uncontrolled division of certain types of bone marrow cells. Such a pathology leads to a violation of the bone structure, there are areas of osteoporosis, which leads to fractures of the bones. Lymphomas initially appear in the lymph nodes and can pass to bone tissue.
First signs of
The severity of bone cancer symptoms depends on the stage of the malignant process. Most often with cancer of bones and joints people pay attention to such signs:
- Pain , it is localized at the site of growth of cancer cells and can irradiate into closely located tissues and organs. At first, soreness is insignificant, it can periodically appear and pass. Then the pain becomes almost constant. For cancerous damage to the bones, there is a characteristic nighttime increasing pain, and this is due to the relaxation of the muscles at this time. Also, soreness increases when making movements. As the cancer progresses, the pain can not be eliminated with the help of analgesics.
- Deformation of the part of the body where the tumor is located. That is, you can pay attention to the appearance of build-up under the skin, it is often hot to the touch, which indicates an inflammatory process.
- Difficulty in making normal movements. When the growing tumor is located near the joint or directly in it, there are violations of the function of this area. That is, a person experiences certain uncomfortable sensations when walking, flexing or flexing hands, turning the trunk.
- Common symptoms of cancer intoxication. These include weakness, irritability, fever, lack of appetite, weight loss.
Symptoms of the oncology of the bones of the legs
The cancer pathology of the bones most often affects the lower extremities. Initially, the disease manifests itself with pain, and they do not have a clear localization, that is, at the initial stages of the process the patient can not accurately show the main point of pain.
As the cancer cells grow, soreness becomes clearer and does not go away. You can also pay attention to the fact that it became difficult to perform physical exercises or a certain load.
With lower limb cancer, the disease affects the walking process. There are violations of the knee or ankle joint function, a person begins to limp, later it becomes impossible to walk because of pain.
Visually it is possible to see a tumor on the leg, often around it is localized puffiness, and the skin over the formation is inflamed, hyperemic. Common symptoms of intoxication join.
Bone cancer of the pelvic region is also manifested by pain, localized in the pelvic region and can be defined in the buttocks. Soreness often moves to the area of the spine and groin. Pain in pelvic bones is increased during physical activity.
Over time, the skin over the site of tumor localization is thinned, there is a difficulty in those movements that are carried out with the help of bone structures of the pelvic region.
Bone carcinoma of the hand is diagnosed less frequently than in the lower limbs. Often, the cancerous formations of the bones of the hands are first manifested by a slight soreness, which the person associates with physical overstrain in the performance of any work. Sometimes a cancer is diagnosed when an X-ray is being screened for a bruise or fracture.
But basically the cancer of the bones of the hand is also manifested by pains that increase at night and when the bone is stressed. The growth of the tumor leads to a limitation of mobility in the elbow, wrist and shoulder joint.
In the latter stages, common signs of the disease, manifested symptoms of cancer intoxication, anemia. Fractures occur even with a slight fall with the support at the same time on the arm.
Stages of the disease
Detection of the stage of bone oncology is necessary to determine the tactics of treatment.
- On the of the first stage, the cancerous formation is only within the bone. This stage is also subdivided into two - the IA stage is set when the tumor does not exceed 8 cm in size. Stage IB - a build-up of more than 8 cm and spreads to the greater part of the affected bone
- . On the , the second stage is still in the bone, but histologicalThe examination reveals the tendency of cells to malignancy.
- On the of the third stage, the neoplasm begins to capture several parts of the bone. Cancer cells are found in regional lymph nodes.
- On the fourth stage swelling captures not only the bone, but adjacent tissues. Metastases are detected in many internal organs, and most often it is the lungs, mammary glands, stomach, liver, testicles and ovaries, fallopian tubes.
If the bone cancer is suspected, the doctor prescribes:
- Radiography of the bones at the site of pain and tumor localization.
- Scanning. By scanning means the introduction of a vein of a substance that will pass into the bone tissue. Then, with the help of a special scanner, the passage of contrast material to the bone is monitored, and even the smallest tumors can be detected with this method.
- MRI, CT.
The diagnosis is made only after full confirmation of the cancer origin of the tumor.
Methods of treatment
The treatment of patients with diagnosed cancer of any of the bones of the skeleton is selected in each case individually. The place of localization of the neoplasm, its stage, the age of the person and the presence of other diseases are taken into account.
Surgical intervention can be combined with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. These methods are prescribed both before and after surgery to destroy the remaining cancer cells. In the last, not operated stages, only chemotherapy can be used, the purpose of which in these cases is to prolong the life of the patient.
Forecast of survival of patients
The prognosis of recovery for patients with bone cancer depends on many factors, this is the location of the formation, its stage, the presence of metastases.
The most favorable case in this case is the cancer of the first stage - , tumor removal and the use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy have made it possible to achieve almost 80% of the survival of patients.
But you should always remember that cancer is characterized by a relapse, so a person treated for this ailment always needs periodic examinations.