1 Characteristics of the vaccine material
For vaccination against encephalitis vaccines are used that contain inactivated, or in other words, killed, virus. What does this mean? The drug contains a virus, but it does not have virulent properties and can not cause the disease. However, the human immune system perceives it all the same as a pathogenic agent and begins to develop a specific immunity to the disease.
What vaccines can be offered in the clinic for protection from encephalitis?
- Encepur is manufactured in Germany. In medical institutions can occur in 2 types. They are identical, but differ only in that they are introduced to people of different age groups. The first group includes children between the ages of 1 year and 11 years, and the second drug is given to a more adult contingent.
- Australian junior and injected vaccines are also the same type of medicines and differ in the same age categories as the one described above. But unlike him, "Junior" can be used as an inoculation for children under the age of 1 year. This becomes possible when there is a high risk of infection with encephalitis.
- This vaccine material, like EnceVir, is produced by the Russian pharmacological industry. He, too, is in demand, however, little children are not appointed.
If you choose which vaccine is most effective, then there is no definite answer. Experts believe that they are almost identical in their ability to provide specific immunity against tick-borne encephalitis. Then what are they different?
- The quality of cleaning of the grafting material and its diluting liquid.
- Various strains of the pathogen are used in the preparation.
- Dosage of the antigen content of the pathogen in a single dose of the drug.
- The presence of additional components necessary to improve the quality of vaccination against this pathogen.
- Can be used to prevent disease only for contingents of certain age groups.
2 How and where to vaccinate
Where to get vaccinated? This question is asked quite often. At once we will be defined: independently this procedure is not carried out. Before you apply, a person of any age must be examined by a doctor. Why? The explanation is quite simple: it is a drug that contains, although weakened, but still a pathogenic agent. When it is misused, side effects often occur. And this is not the most important thing. The material for the vaccination should be stored in a specific temperature regime. Otherwise, the quality of the drug and its property to create immunity drops sharply.
We recommend that you familiarize yourself with the
- Possible reactions to the tick-borne encephalitis vaccination
- What is the name of the vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis
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So, this procedure can be done only in a medical institution, for example, in a district clinic. Can vaccination be carried out by private medical institutions? Of course, they can. However, for this, they must have a license to provide this type of medical assistance, as well as qualified specialists. In this case, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that in a private clinic you will have to pay for the vaccination, and in a state institution any such manipulation is free. That is, it is up to the patient to decide where to get such medical assistance.
The procedure is always the same, with the observance of the principles of aseptic and antiseptic, under conditions of manipulation or special inoculation. One ampoule of the drug is calculated per patient. After disinfection it is opened, the dose is diluted with a special solution and the syringe is injected intramuscularly into the shoulder region. Already diluted drug against tick-borne encephalitis should not be stored. If it was not used, it must be destroyed immediately.
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Data on the introduction of any vaccine material to the patient should be entered on his outpatient card, marked in special journals of the medical institution. With the development of various reactions to the introduction of vaccines in a patient on an outpatient card, this is indicated by a mark.
3 When to get vaccinated
You can vaccinate against an infection like encephalitis at any time of the year. However, one must remember that for the development of the required level of immunity it is necessary that a certain time passes. In this regard, there is a certain order of carrying out any immunization. His scheme may vary slightly depending on the drug used. However, in the standard form it consists of 3 main stages:
- The first inoculation is done immediately after the therapist's examination, on the day appointed by him. This is the so-called vaccination.
- After 1 or 3 months( this depends on the drug chosen for immunization), the first revaccination is performed.
- The second revaccination is performed no later than one year after the patient is vaccinated.
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This is the standard scheme. According to epidemic indications, so-called emergency immunization of a person can be carried out. What does it mean? After the first inoculation, revaccination is given after 2 weeks. The timing of the second revaccination does not change. Immunologists believe that such a vaccination schedule for this infection will provide the patient with stable immunity for 3 years.
4 Possible side effects of
The fact that the patient needs to be vaccinated only in a medical institution is evidenced by the fact that the patient should be observed after vaccination. After all, from the development of various postvaccinal reactions, no one is immune. What kind of reactions are we talking about? They are subdivided into local and general manifestations.
Local reactions are considered an easy form of post-vaccination complications. They are expressed by the following symptoms:
- There is a slight edema at the place of administration of the vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis.
- A small patch of skin blushes.
- Infiltration of tissues.
- Minor soreness of the muscle tissue at the site of administration of the inoculum.
- Regional lymph nodes are rarely enlarged.
As a rule, this symptomatology disappears within the next 3 days. In this case, medical intervention will not be required. However, it is still necessary to notify the attending physician of such post-vaccination reactions.
The general reactions of the human body to vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis are more severe. In this case, the patient will not be able to do without a doctor's visit. What symptoms can appear in this case?
- The body temperature index increases.
- The patient complains of weakness, fatigue.
- A headache of varying intensity may appear.
Very rarely in the conduct of such vaccinations in humans develops an allergic reaction. However, with a prophylactic goal, patients are advised to be under the supervision of a doctor in a polyclinic after vaccination still somewhere about half an hour. If there is an undesirable reaction, he will immediately receive the necessary medical care.
5 Help with a bite of the tick
Consider this situation: a person is not vaccinated against encephalitis, and after a stay in nature he found a tick on his body. What to do? Where to go? Do I need to be vaccinated in this case?
You do not need to remove the mite yourself. It is necessary to visit a trauma center at a polyclinic institution or traumatology department. There, a medical worker is qualified to remove the insect. However, it is not discarded, but in a special container it is sent for bacteriological examination to the sanitary service.
It is not necessary to put an inoculation in this case. It will not help, because immunity does not have time to form. However, at the trauma site, patients are treated with a specific immunoglobulin. He is able to provide some protection against the disease at least within the next month.
It must be remembered that the only protection against tick-borne encephalitis is immunization with specific vaccines. Such medical care is provided only on the basis of medical institutions of the polyclinic profile. The vaccine can not be bought in the pharmacy chain. This is a specific medication that contains an inactivated agent of infection. This means that control by the state over the rules of its production, delivery, storage and introduction to both adults and children is quite tough.
Patients should understand that if there is a risk of being infected with encephalitis, vaccination should be given in advance.
It is worth remembering that immunity will not develop immediately, but after a certain time after vaccination. Thus, it is necessary to take care of your protection in advance.