Albumin in urine is the main protein of blood plasma, its function is the construction of new cells in the form of essential amino acids. When the normal amount of substance changes in the urine, the work of the internal organs is disrupted, it is possible that not only short-term pathological changes, but also serious diseases.
Albumin in urine
Albumin is a simple water soluble protein, the basis of blood plasma. Among all plasma proteins, albumin is the most numerous, its concentration occupies more than 50% of the total volume of the liquid part of the blood. The molecules of this protein have a low molecular weight and bind water in the vascular bed. Albumin forms a plasma pressure, maintains a constant volume of blood, binds ions of minerals and trace elements, as well as metabolites of uric acid and bilirubin.
Albumin is filtered through the renal membranes, each day these kidney components pass through themselves about 5 grams of protein, with 99% returned to the bloodstream of the renal tubules.
With a slight damage to the renal glomeruli, more albumin leaves with urine, whereas in serious pathologies such changes become dangerous.
An increase in the albumin yield with urine, more than 20 milligrams / liter, is called microalbuminuria. If the body along with urine loses 300 mg per day, it is a question of macroalbuminuria.
Studies on microalbuminuria
Studies on microalbuminuria present urine tests. Analyzes are carried out under laboratory conditions, the morning, night or daily portion of urine can be used to study the albumin concentration.
Assay for microalbuminuria may be prescribed for such symptoms:
- chest pain;
- increased pressure, which is observed for several days or more;
- the transition of pain to the left side of the body;
- elevated cholesterol level in the blood.
Signs of a stroke are also the reason for the appointment of a urine test for albumin:
- weakness of the limbs;
- speech difficulties;
- loss of consciousness.
Preparing for the
study For albumin analysis, morning urine or urine is collected for the past 24 hours, and a night portion of urine is also allowed. Before you take urine for albumin, you should buy a sterile plastic container, then collect and take it to the
laboratory. The test is not performed in the following cases:
- after physical activity;
- for suspected urinary tract infections;
- in the presence of acute kidney disease;
- has symptoms of prolonged heart failure;
- elevated body temperature;
- acute complications of diabetes.
Conducting the analysis of
The main method of the study for microalbuminuria is the analysis of the daily portion of urine. With the development of medicine, it became possible to obtain an accurate result when examining single portions. If the doctor prescribes a 24-hour urine test, the patient needs to collect the material within 24 hours, and the next day, bring it to the laboratory. When answering the question of how to pass urine, you should know that you only need to deliver 10 ml of daily, pre-mixed urine to the laboratory.
One-time analysis involves the study of a morning or night portion of urine in a volume of 10-20 ml.
The albumin norm in daily urine is presented in the table:
|Urinalysis for albumin|
|Daily portion of urine|| |
Less than 30 milligrams per day
|30-300 milligrams per day||Over 300 milligrams per day|
|Single dose of urine||Less than 20 milligrams per liter||20 to 200 milligrams per liter||Over 200 milligrams per liter|
|Assay for albumin and creatinine ratio|
|Single morning portion of urine||Less than 2.26 mg /mmol||2,26 - 30 mg / mmol||More than 30 mg / mmol|
Deviations from the standard
Deviations from normal - anything that is above or below normal values. By results of analyzes it is impossible to precisely define the concrete reason and to put the exact diagnosis. When a microalbuminuria is detected, the patient is assigned additional studies to identify the cause.
If albumin in the urine is elevated, this could mean the following:
- inflammatory kidney disease;
- glomerular nephropathy;
- diabetes mellitus;
- hypothermia or hyperthermia;Congestive heart failure;
- metabolic syndrome;
- alcoholism in the chronic stage;
- etching with heavy metals.
The cause of microalbuminuria development can also be pregnancy.
If microalbuminuria is detected, it is in no case possible to start independent treatment, as the causes of increased protein concentration in the urine are diverse. What to do next can be appointed only by the attending physician after receiving the results of a comprehensive examination.