A cyst is a collection of fluid in the cavity of a dead region of the brain. Cysts can occur in any area of the brain in the form of a single education or multiple. According to medical statistics, about 40% of newborn babies are born with this diagnosis.
Often, these formations are identified even at the stage of finding the fetus in the womb, but some of the cysts in the brain at the time of the birth of the child itself dissolves by itself without outside influence.
However, this pathology can influence the full development of the emerging organism. The presence of a cyst is fraught with undesirable consequences, so you should not disregard this pathology.
Reasons for the formation of brain cysts
The main factors affecting the formation of cysts;
- congenital pathologies of central nervous system development;
- birth and postnatal trauma;
- advanced inflammatory diseases( meningitis, encephalitis);
- hemorrhage in the brain;
- infection with the herpes virus;
- insufficiency of cerebral circulation, leading to a deterioration in the supply of cells with nutrients and oxygen;
All these factors lead to degeneration of the brain tissue, their necrosis( dying out) and the formation in this area of empty space, which gradually becomes filled with liquid. This leads to the appearance of neurological symptoms that affect the growth of the child and its development.
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This kind of cyst can have various sizes and shapes and is located between the surface of the brain and its arachnoid shell. The cause can be both inflammatory processes and traumas of various etymologies.
The peculiarity of the arachnoid cyst is its ability to grow rapidly, which can lead to squeezing of tissues and the development of complications. It is more common in boys.
This kind of cyst can also have serious consequences and complications for the child. The emergence of subelendemic cyst affects the lack of blood circulation in the brain in the area of its ventricles, causing oxygen starvation of tissues, their death and the formation of a cavity in this place, so it is important to conduct a child's examination with such a diagnosis several times a year.
For this, the MRI( magnetic resonance imaging) method is used. If the baby has a further growth of the cavity, and the pressure of the liquid in it increases, this can have a negative effect on nearby tissues: they change their position and structure.
Vascular plexus cysts
This kind of cyst is observed even during fetal development. The medicine considers this phenomenon to be relatively normal, since it occurs usually at a certain stage of pregnancy. These cysts tend to dissolve naturally as the fetus grows.
At later stages, after the child's birth, cysts of the vascular plexuses can become a consequence of inflammatory and infectious processes that the mother has experienced during the gestation period, or due to the severe course of pregnancy and severe childbirth.
The presence of cysts can cause pathological disorders in all tissues and organs of the newborn. The value is the size of the cyst and its tendency to grow. Cysts can grow for the following reasons:
- buildup of fluid pressure in the cavity;
- further development of inflammatory and infectious processes in the child's body;
- brain concussion in children with existing cysts, bruises and head injuries in such children;
Cysts of small and constant size in most cases do not show themselves in childhood. However, these cysts require regular medical supervision.
In the adolescent period, when the children's body will undergo significant changes, the cysts of the brain, previously not showing any tendency to change, may start to grow suddenly.
Large cysts can cause various painful symptoms as a result of increased pressure on surrounding tissues:
- headaches of varying intensity and duration - spasmodic, aching and persistent;
- disorders of the sensory organs - sight, hearing, smell;
- insomnia and drowsiness;
- motor coordination disorders;
- hypertonicity( or hypotension) of the muscles;
- noise, sensation of pulsation in the head, increased intracranial pressure;
- convulsions and sudden syncope;
- tremor of the hands;
- vomiting, regurgitation;
- fontanelle swelling and pulsation in it;
- partial transient paralysis of the limbs;
- numbness of the limbs;
So, if the cyst is located in the occipital part of the head, this leads to visual disturbances, such as diplopia( double vision), deterioration of visual acuity, the appearance of a veil before the eyes.
The cyst in the cerebellar region affects the coordination of movements. If the cavity formation is localized next to the pituitary gland, it can affect the endocrine system and the sexual development of the child. In severe cases, there may be a divergence of the sutures in the bones of the skull and a delay in the children's physical and mental development.
In newborn infants under the age of one year( until the fontanelle is not yet closed), the presence of a cyst is detected using ultrasound diagnosis( neurosonography).
These studies are conducted primarily in premature, debilitated children at risk for this disease. It should also be mandatory to examine for the presence of cysts of children who have undergone hypoxia and resuscitation procedures during childbirth.
To clarify the diagnosis and at later stages, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are performed.
To determine the causes of infections and circulatory disorders that led to the formation of a cyst, additional indirect studies may be required:
- Dopplerography of blood vessels( performed to identify narrowing and other vascular pathologies);
- Blood tests for clotting, cholesterol, infections and autoimmune diseases;
- Study of the work of the heart;
- Blood pressure test;
Therapy is performed depending on the type of cyst. In the case of vascular plexus cysts, special treatment is usually not required: cavities dissolve independently. It is important only to timely eliminate the infection and inflammation that led to the onset of cysts.
If cavity formations are large and tend to increase, surgical intervention may be required. Operative treatment can be 2x species: radical and palliative .
Radical treatment of
This method involves trepanation of the skull and removal of the cyst along with the intracavitary fluid and walls. In view of the fact that the operation is performed on the open brain, it is associated with high traumatism and is used only in the most extreme cases.
The methods of palliative therapy include shunting - removal of the cyst by means of a shunting system. The method is less dangerous and traumatic than a radical intervention. However, it has its drawbacks - the risk of infection due to the long existence of a shunt in the cranial cavity. In addition, this method allows you to remove only fluid from the cavity of the cyst, and not the entire formation.
Another method is endoscopy: removal of the cyst through narrow punctures in the skull. This method is safe and low in trauma, but requires high surgical qualification.
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A successful forecast depends primarily on timely diagnosis. If the cyst is detected in time, has a small and constant size for a long time, then the prognosis is usually favorable.
Intensive growth of the cyst cavity, leading to compression of the brain tissue, can lead to increased intracranial pressure, complications and brain hemorrhage. In this case, the prognosis depends on timely surgical intervention. If the cyst is removed before complications develop, there will be no painful consequences.
Possible complications of
Untimely detection of a cyst, especially prone to enlargement, can lead to irreversible pathological changes in the brain tissues. This can entail lifelong problems with hearing, sight and coordination of movements.
More serious complications may develop: hydrocephalus( a state of the brain in which excessive amounts of fluid accumulate in its ventricles, which leads to a disruption in the activity of the central nervous system and the structure of the skull).
This is why regular screening of newborn babies, especially those at risk, is so important.
Video, which highlights the main causes of the development of brain cysts in newborns :