Kidney hydrocalysis in reference books and medical sites can be found under two names: it is also called calicoectasia. But both terms conceal one thing entirely: abnormal enlargement of renal calyces and pelvis due to impaired urine outflow. Today, this problem occurs in patients of completely different ages: from newborn babies to pregnant women and pensioners.
Kidney hydrocalysis - what is it?
Officially renal hydrocalicosis is a pathological condition of the excretory organs, in which urine accumulates in the calyx and pelvis, they stretch, and this leads to squeezing the parenchyma. And as a consequence - to the atrophy of the renal papillae.
Paps in healthy kidneys pass secondary urine to get into the calyx, then into the pelvis, and only then move along the ureter into the bladder and further to the urethra. Therefore, with severe calicoectasia, which is bilateral hydrocalicosis, the process of urination is completely disrupted, which threatens chronic renal failure.
Scientists have started talking about calicoectasia relatively recently, so pathology is not even included in ICD-10, the official world classification of diseases.
But in ICD-10 you can find hydronephrosis - one of the severe consequences of hydrocalicosis. A severe and constantly progressive increase in renal calyxes and pelvis is hiding under code N13 - obstructive therapy and reflux therapy.
The cause that prevents the complete discharge of urine can be hidden both to the left and to the right. In this regard, distinguish the hydrocalysis of the right and left kidneys. Most often, the right kidney suffers - it is just below its left "twins" and is more prone to negative factors. Sometimes - about one-fifth of all cases of calicoectasia - bilateral bilateral hydrocalicosis is diagnosed.
The causes of hydrocalicosis of the right, left or both kidneys are the same. But there are many reasons for these reasons, so medical scientists divide them into 2 large groups: renal( organic, or immediate) and extrarenal( mediated).
- kidney stones( nephrolithiasis);
- sand and stones in the urinary tract;
- various tumors in the kidney;
- wandering kidney( nephroptosis);
- omission of the kidney;
- abnormalities of the structure of the renal vessels;
- urinary tract infection;
- trauma and various inflammation of the organs of excretion.
- tumors of various types in the retroperitoneal cavity;
- congenital anomalies of the structure of blood vessels;
- lymphatic vascular disease;
- compression of the ureters by a retroperitoneal lymphocyte or enlarged lymph node;
- inflammatory diseases of neighboring organs;
- various congenital malformations of the urinary system.
To the same group include the functional cause of calicoectasia of the kidneys - pregnancy, especially in later terms. At this time, the enlarged uterus shifts slightly to the right and palpably presses on the right kidney, which causes pregnant women to develop a so-called mild hydrocalysis. After giving birth, an unpleasant symptom usually passes by itself.
It is difficult to isolate the main risk factor for hydrocalicosis - a wide variety of events can interfere with the outflow of urine. But if in adults causes often become acquired diseases and infections, in children - congenital anomalies and inflammations.
Symptoms and signs
Calicoectasia of the kidneys is usually asymptomatic for a long time. If, at first, periodic pains appear in the lumbar region, then the patient may not associate them with renal problems and until the latter postpone the trip to the doctor.
The main symptoms of renal hydrocalicosis are:
- severe chills and a temperature below 40ºC( intensified when the urine does not leave for a long time);
- sometimes - nausea and vomiting, not bringing relief;
- back pain, giving to the groin;
- sharp pain occurs even if you just move or touch the lower back;
- there are frequent urge to urinate, but there is very little fluid;
- color in urine is cloudy, dark yellow, often with an admixture of blood;
- during urination there is a sharp and severe pain.
In the newborn, the urinary system is still forming, so the symptoms may vary slightly. In many cases, the children suffer from nausea and vomiting, gastrointestinal motility is disrupted. Children constantly run to the toilet, but urine departs very badly.
Understand that hydrocalicosis in a newborn baby is even more difficult. The main sign in this case is cloudy urine with an unpleasant odor and droplets of blood. The behavior of the baby also changes: he becomes restless and often cries.
It is necessary to diagnose hydrocalicosis very carefully, because he skillfully masks for other kidney diseases. The classic symptoms of calicoectasia are similar at the same time to manifestations of pyelonephritis, and to renal colic and gastrointestinal diseases, so external examination and collection of anamnesis will not do anything. The patient is waiting for a full range of diagnostic methods - from laboratory to instrumental.
The following diagnostic methods are used to diagnose kidney hydrocalysis:
- general blood and urine analysis;
- X-ray of abdominal organs;
- urography( X-ray of the kidneys) using contrast medium;
- kidney ultrasound( with doppler);
- ureteropyelography( urinary tract examination);
- computed tomography and MRI.
The ultrasound method is indispensable at the same time for diagnosing and monitoring the dynamics of the disease in a patient. Ultrasound will help to see the characteristic visual signs of hydrocalicosis: an increase in the calyx and pelvis of the kidney( correspondingly more than 4 mm and more than 10-15 mm), as well as stagnation of urine. And ultrasound with a doppler will show the state of the kidney vessels.
Other instrumental analyzes will reveal the narrowing and widening of the ureters, the presence of sand and stones in the path of urine, congenital abnormalities in children that hamper the urinary process, etc.
Treatment for kidney hydrocalysis goes in two directions: eliminating the root cause and getting rid of the consequences(restoration of the outflow of urine, removal of pain syndrome, etc.).For this, conservative( medicamental) therapy, surgical intervention and folk methods of treatment are used.
Pharmaceuticals in the treatment of renal calicoectasia are aimed at treating the underlying cause if it is an infection or inflammation. And also used to remove the unpleasant symptoms of the disease.
These are the groups of drugs:
- antibiotics( for the treatment of bacterial infection);
- pain killers and antispasmodics;
- diuretics( only if renal papilla atrophy has not started);
- means for improving blood supply to the kidneys;
- preparations of plant origin for the treatment of kidney diseases.
Which drugs will be treated depends on the root cause of hydrocalicosis.
To operation with hydrocalysis of the kidneys are extremely rare, only if the traditional medication has not brought a positive effect. There are 2 types of surgery: classical cavitary and endoscopic( only 3 punctures in the abdominal wall are done).In the most severe cases, when hydrocalcosis develops into renal insufficiency, hemodialysis is required.
Often the operation is recommended for children with renal calicoectasia - if the usual medications do not help, and the disease progresses.
Traditional methods of treatment
Treatment with folk remedies is used only as a part of complex medical treatment or during rehabilitation therapy after surgery. How to treat hydrocalysis folk methods can appoint only a doctor, otherwise the process can be not only inefficient, but also dangerous. Therefore, all the "grandmother's" recipes must necessarily be agreed with the attending physician.
With a disturbed outflow of urine, decoctions of juniper, birch leaves, marigolds, and ready-made kidneys are usually recommended. A special gentle diet is also needed.
Therapeutic diet with renal calicoectasia suggests a lower content of protein and fat in the diet. It is useful to include in the menu berries and berry smoothies, skimmed sour-milk products.
For newborn babies, special treatment of kidney hydrocalysis is not required - only careful monitoring. Often such an innate feature eventually passes by itself.
And in order to prevent the occurrence of hydrocalicosis, it is important to monitor the health of the kidneys: do not overheat, carefully observe the rules of personal hygiene, so as not to catch the infection. A healthy diet with a high content of liquid will also help: light soups, fruit drinks, compotes, juices and smoothies, clean water.